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China Human Rights Net > News > Focus > Dalai Clique's Separatist Activities Condemned > Facts
How was the 14th Dalai Lama determined?
 
 

  ------Is Tibet "a fully functioning state"? (March 30, 1991)

By: Zhu Muzhi

Releasing time: 10:03:47, January 11, 2007

Source: 70 Years in Surging Storm Tide
China Intercontinental Press


The Observer in UK reported on March 17 that, "Dalai Lama rejected UK FCO in recognizing Tibet as an autonomous region. He considered Tibet as a fully functioning state in 1911-1950."

By saying that, Dalai Lama must have forgotten his origin. How did he, son of a farmer in Qinghai Province named Lhamo Thondup become the 14th Dalai Lama?

According to rites of the Tibetan Buddhism, after the 13th Dalai Lama passed away in Lhasa on December 17, 1933, a searching party was sent out to find reincarnation of the 13th Dalai Lama. The search party found altogether three reincarnation candidates. It was stipulated by the central government of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) that candidate reincarnation must be approved by the central government. In 1792, the Qing Government further clarified in its Imperially Approved Ordinance for the More Efficient Governing of Tibet that reincarnation of the deceased Dalai or Panchen should be decided in the way of drawing lots if there were more than one candidates. Lots with Chinese, Manchu and Tibetan name of the candidates were put in a tailor-made gold urn, and then under the monitoring of the Tibetan monks and civilians, the Resident Minister in Tibet of the Qing Government drew a lot to decide the reincarnation of Dalai or Panchen. Results would then be submitted to the central government for approving. That is the "Gold Urn" System and the gold urn that was used in lot-drawing are still well preserved. Since there were three candidates, the sole reincarnation must be decided by gold urn lot-drawing. In winter 1938, the Tibetan Regent Reting submitted a reported to Wu Zhongxin - Chairman of the Commission for Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs of the Central Government of the Republic of China, saying "as for the issue of sending representatives by the Central Government, after consultation with Silons and Kashags, it is recommended that on the occasion of the gold urn lot-drawing ceremony when the three incarnate boys arrive in Lhasa, the Central Government should send representatives to participate in the ceremony so as to make it more dependable and pleased by the people far and wide." In the report, the Reting further solicited "to have Qinghai Provincial Government urging Jichang Buddha to accompany the incarnate boy from Qinghai to Tibet as soon as possible." The incarnate boy mentioned in Reting's report whose name is Lhamo Thondup is the later 14th Dalai Lama. The Central Government of the Republic of China therefore ordered Chairman of Qinghai Provincial Government Ma Bufang to send troops to escort the incarnate boy from Qinghai to Tibet. In the meantime, the central government appropriated 100,000 Yuan as the expense of escorting.

Lhamo Thondup and his escorting party left Xining in July 1939 and arrived in Lhasa in early October. The Tibetan Kashag reported to Chairman Chiang (Chiang Kaishek) of the Central Government of the Republic of China on the smooth journey of the party. In the report, he further stated, "ceremonies like granting the incarnate boy honorific title, initiating him into monkhood and enthronement will follow up in selected lucky days. And additional reports will be submitted on those occasions."

Later, the Tibetan Regent Reting reported to the Central Government, proposing not to have gold urn lot-drawing as he thought the incarnate boy Lhamo Thondup from Qinghai was very intelligent. On January 26, 1940, Reting wrote to Wu Zhongxin, stating that, "People in Tibet, whether monks or civilians, whether the rich or the poor, all reverently believed that Lhamo Thondup is reincarnation of the 13th Dalai Lama. Since he is widely recognized, he can be initiated into monkhood in the traditional way without having gold urn lot-drawing. I have already filed my proposal to the Central Government." As he received the letter from Reting, Wu Zhongxin reported to the Executive Yuan of the Republic of China on the next day. On January 31, Chiang Kaishek, Chairman of the Executive Yuan, applied the Central Government for issuing a state order to the effect that Lhamo Thondup was approved to succeed the 13th Dalai Lama as the 14th Dalai Lama without having gold urn lot-drawing and further appropriate outlay for the enthronement ceremony. On February 3, 1940, Chairman of the Central Government of the Republic of China issued a State order, saying that:

"Lhamo Thondup, the incarnate boy from Qinghai, is very intelligent and exceptional extraordinary. It is proved through investigation that he is the reincarnation of the thirteenth Dalai Lama and should promptly be exempted from lot-drawing, thereby ratified to succeed as the 14th Dalai Lama."

On February 22, 1942, on the 14th Dalai Lama enthronement ceremony, the Central Government, by following the tradition way and in response to request of the Tibetan local government, assigned Chairman of Commission for Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Wu Zhongxin to participated in the ceremony on behalf of the Central Government.

The searching for the reincarnation of the 13th Dalai Lama and the enthronement of the 14th Dalai Lama shows that the assignation of the Tibetan local leader Dalai Lama have to be applied to the Central Government of China for approving. Isn't it ridiculous to say the Tibet had been "a fully functioning state" since 1911? Historical facts is more than enough to attest that since the Yuan Dynasty in 13th century to 1911 when the Qing Dynasty was overthrown, Tibet had all the while been a part of China under the jurisdiction of the Chinese central government.

In the meantime, there are abundant facts to show that Tibet remained a part of China under the jurisdiction of the Chinese central government from 1911 to 1950. For instance, like any other provinces, the Tibetan local government had sent delegates to attend the National Assembly (similar to the parliament in the west countries) called upon by the Central Government of the Republic of China; archives of the Commission for Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs of the central government of Republic of China show that in 1931, 1936, 1940 and 1946, the Tibetan Kashag had frequent telegraph and letter communication with the Office of the Commission for Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs in Lhasa on the issue of sending representatives; historical archives indicate that taking the post of Tibetan Regent by Reting and Daza after the 13th Dalai Lama had passed away had to be applied to the Central government for approving as well. While at that time the 14th Dalai Lama was too young to understand these historical facts, he may refer to relevant material for information to achieve a proper understanding about that. How could he blurt out that Tibet had been a "fully functioning state" sine 1911?

(Originally on the overseas edition of People's Daily)

 
from: China Intercontinental Press
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