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China Human Rights Net > News > Focus > Dalai Clique's Separatist Activities Condemned > Facts
Human Rights Record of Dalai Lama

(May 15, 1999)

Writer: Zhu Muzhi
Releasing Time: 2008-04-10 13:38:28
Source:70 Years in Surging Storm Tide
China Intercontinental Press

At present, Dalai Lama goes around to bloviate about human rights, "love and compassion" and "nonviolence", and to sympathetically appeal for the restoration of "human rights" of Tibetan people. Dalai Lama is the hierarch of Lama Buddhism as well as one of The Nobel Peace Prize Laureates, and then it is very natural for people to believe that Tibetan people under the rule of Dalai Lama lived the most free and happiest life with perfect human rights record. Therefore, after referring to various materials and archives, the writer lists hereinafter a very small portion of a large amount of human rights records of Tibet under the rule of Dalai Lama.

Here is the excerption of a compensable transferring contract of human:

"Lhapa is the daughter of Sonam Butri, who belongs to Dratsang of Nechung Monastery. Lhapa has been brought up by Etingpa after her mother died. The majordomo of Great Lama in Nechung Monastery has paid Etingpa silver of 12 Changar (note: a kind of unit of measurement) for the raising cost. And now the girl has been transferred to a serf named Tsongduba, and Tsongduba has made an agreement of bearing supplementary corvee of the girl. The agreement stated clearly that Tsongduba must bear all the corvee of Lhapa unconditionally henceforth, and accept any assignments assigned by the officials of Living Buddha, and the girl should do the same thing too. The marriage of the girl will be determined by you solely henceforth, but the future generations of the girl will still belong to Dratsang of Nechung Monastery, which must not be violated. Once tricky and evil acts were found, it would not be tolerated, and anyone wound have the right to punish them strictly.

Contractor: Tsongdu
Lhapa (fingerprint)
Warrantor: Gyalpo (fingerprint)
February 10, Dragon Year of Tibetan Calendar

We should note that, 95% Tibetan people belonged to their masters for generations in Tibet at that time and they were called "affiliated people". "Serf" was a kind of affiliated people. They cultivated plants for their masters without pay and bored various kinds of corvee. The master who possessed the affiliated people were called "lord", which were made up by monks in the Lama Temples, officials and nobles and they were accounted for 5% of the total population in Tibet.

And human can be exchanged too. Here is a contract of exchanging affiliated people by lords:

"As an agreement between Rigcho Monastery and the two parties involved, Osung, the son of the guard and the affiliated people of Rigcho Monastery has been exchanged with Tenzin Wangyal, the son of Jamyang Wangyal, the affiliated people of the lord of this Manor. In the future, all the future generations of Osung will be ruled by the lord of this Manor, while the lord of the future generations of Tenzin Wangyal will be Rigcho Monastery. This has been an accorded contract, and this contract has been made to guarantee that both parties will not change the agreement or dispute with it in the future. The contract has two copies for each party.

The Treasurer Chongre(fingerprint)
Gesore of Rigcho (Stamp)
June 1, Tiger Year of Tibetan Calendar

And one can pay his debts with human. The following are two contracts of paying debts with human.

Contract I:
Affiliated people Tsewang Rapten Couple pay their debts with their daughter and youngest son.

Because of owing and having no ability to pay back the Dekang of Nedong a large amount of money and grain, The couple of Tsewang Rapten, affiliated people of Duosong Manor have to mortgage their daughter Gensen Dondan and their youngest son Pema Tenzin to Dekang so as to pay back the debts. And the future generations of the daughter and the son will be the affiliated people of Dekang.

Contract II:
The mortgaging Contract of Tashi Chodar, which agrees that his sister Tsering Lhamon works for Labrang without pay for ten years.

Since Tashi Chodar of Lhari Manor owes Labrang grain of forty gram (about more than 520 kg.) and cannot pay. He agrees that his sister Tsering Lhamon works for Labrang without pay for ten years so as to pay back the debt. The Contract regulates:
"Once any contravention was found, she should be responsible for her sins according to the local laws."

When Dalai Lama was the ruler of Tibet before 1959, there were laws. And these laws included the so called "The Thirteen Codes" and "The Sixteen Codes", which had been used for more than 300 years. These two codes regulated according to ancestry and position of people that, "human beings are divided into three levels of upper, middle and lower, and each level are also divided into three grades of upper, middle and lower". The king of Tibet, Living Buddha of various levels and nobles belong to "upper level", businessmen, clerks and rancher belong to "middle level", while blacksmiths, butchers and women belong to "lower grade of lower level". The value of lives differentiated in every level. According to the codes, "human beings are divided into various levels, so are the value of lives." In the regulation of the two codes, the "value of lives" of "upper grade of upper level" is "invaluable", or "the remains are as valuable as gold". The "value of lives" of "middle grade of upper level" equals to three to four hundred decagram (gold). As to the blacksmiths, butchers and women graded as "upper grade of upper level", their "value of lives" equals to "a hay rope". "Who kills a blacksmith or a butcher only need pay for a hay rope" (referring to Article Seven, "Price of killing people" of "The Thirteen Codes").

In order to maintain this system of "three levels and nine grades", the codes strictly punish the actions of offending superiors. The third article of "The Thirteen Codes" regulates that "the humbles who quarrel with the seniors will be arrested", the eighth article regulates that "the punishments against the actions of hurting people differentiated between upper and lower levels: if a civilian hurts an official, the punishment will be cutting off the hands of feet of the offender depending on the condition of the injury; if a master accidentally hurts his servant, there will no punishment if the master helps to cure the servant. There is no compensation if a master beats his servant and injures him." The fourth article of "The Thirteen Codes", "the law of corporal punishments towards felonies" regulates the corporal punishments as "exoculation, cutting foot, cutting tongue, cutting hand, shoving over a cliff, drowning, and execution and so on".

In the past, law cases are not only tried by governments of various levels in Tibet, but also by major monasteries, lords of all Manors and tribe chiefs. In an existent order that Dalai Lama personally issued to officials, he reaffirmed that the Drepung Monastery has the right to try all sorts of law cases, declaring crimes and sentencing. Therefore, corporal punishments are very common in the past Tibet. In the existent materials there are many photos taken in 1950s when Dalai Lama was the ruler. In some of the photos, the eyes of a serf named Bupa were gouged out by his lord, the right hand of a serf named Pemu Honzin was cut off by his lord because he stole half a bag of Bare Barley, one foot of a serf of Ando county named Tuto was cut off by the tribe chief, the eyes of a serf named Buden were gouged out and so on. And all kinds of horrible instruments of torture are still in store.

And some extremely bloodcurdling things are found in the archives. Here are some original documents:

Letter I:

"To Chief Ratao:
For chanting scriptures and congratulating the birthday of Dalai Lama, the crew of Gyumed Tantric College need chant a scripture. In order to accomplish this Buddhist ceremony, we need throw foods, so a set of fresh intestines, two heads, all sorts of blood and a whole human skin are required, please send them soon."

Letter II:

We will organize Buddhist ceremony of Worshipping Fairy, therefore we need four heads, ten sets of intestines, clean blood, dirty blood, dust from relics, catamenia blood of a widow, blood of lepra patients, all sorts of meat, all kinds of heart, all sorts of blood, water from umbraticolous land, dust brought by cyclone, northward brier, dog shit, human shit, boots of butcher and so no. Please send to Ciqukang at 20 this month.

Ciqukang at 19"

That's enough. The above historic archives are the most honest records of the human rights the Tibetan people enjoyed during the ruling period of Dalai Lama.

At present, there are no "lords" and "affiliated people" in Tibet anymore; human beings cannot be bought or sold out, exchanged and paid debts as personal property anymore; people will not be divided into three levels and nine grades anymore, and blacksmiths, butchers and women will not just worth a hay rope anymore, instead, women become the "half world" as important as men and a part of the working class which leads the country regulated by the Constitution; no monasteries, lords of Manor, tribe chiefs are allowed to try law cases in private and execute tortures like exoculation, cutting foot, cutting hand, cutting tongue anymore; and no one dares to ask for human heads, skin, intestines, blood and so on. Therefore, what kind of human rights Dalai Lama, the once biggest lord of "the upper grade of the upper level" goes around and appeals to restore for Tibetan people?

(The original article was published in "People's Daily Overseas Edition")

from: China Intercontinental Press
China Society For Human Rights Studies
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