Reform and Development of the Prison Work and the Guarantee of Criminals' Human Rights
November 26,2014   By:chinahumanrights.org


Li Yuqian


The issue of human rights has become an important matter that attracts the universal attention of whole society today; and the guarantee of the human rights of criminals is an issue that attracts more attention from the people, as well as an important work to which the prisons in China have always attached great importance. Since the founding of New China, the prisons in China have taken the Marxist theories on human rights as guidance, followed the socialist humanitarianism principle for criminals, and strictly guaranteed the rights of criminals. China has achieved tremendous achievements in the guarantee of criminals’ human rights. Especially since the 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC), the prison setup has adhered to reform and development. As a result, the human rights conditions in the prisons have been greatly improved, and a human rights guarantee system for the prisons with the Chinese characteristics has taken shape. The prisons are on the frontier of the international human rights struggle, and the guarantee of human rights in the prisons, which is a special field for the guarantee of human rights, has made active contributions to China’s human rights field in the international struggle, and has won extensive attention and recognition of the international community.

I.Strengthening the guarantee of the human rights of criminals is of great significance

The human rights of criminals refer to the restrictive special rights enjoyed by the criminals in detention who are sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment, life imprisonment and death penalty with suspension of execution. The guarantee of the human rights of criminals refers to the systems and measures of the state or other entities that shall, through legislation, judicature and other activities, guarantee that the criminals’ human rights that have not been deprived and restricted according to law shall not be infringed upon or be realized. The guarantee of human rights in prisons often becomes a focus that attracts worldwide attention because of the special main body and guaranteed objects, and a window that can best reflect the degree of civilization and legal system construction of a country. Therefore, under the new historical conditions, guaranteeing the human rights of criminals is of great realistic significance.[page]

1. The guarantee of human rights in prisons is an important component of the guarantee of human rights of whole society.

The prison is an organ of the state for executing criminal punishments, and a window of social civilization as well. The guarantee of human rights in prisons has always been one of the core and sensitive parts of the human-right guarantee; hence the international community has always paid great attention to the protection of the criminals’ rights in prisons. In 1950, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution, deciding that the United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders be held once every five years. Now, 11 such congresses have been convened. The United Nations and other relevant organizations have worked out a series of international documents on the treatment and rights of offenders, such as Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisons, Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Being Subject to Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment of Punishment, and United Nations Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice, etc. The promulgation and implementation of these international documents are of extremely important significance not only to the protection of the human rights of criminals, but also to the deep-going development of the human rights campaign of the whole international community. In 1992, the Chinese Government promulgated the white paper “Criminal Reform in China,” which introduced China’s basic principle of reforming criminals, and the rights enjoyed by criminals; resolved some misunderstandings and misinformation of the international community to China and helped the people of other countries to understand the real conditions of China’s prison work; and denounced the slanders and attacks launched by the Western hostile forces against the human-right situation in the Chinese prisons with hard facts. The human rights of criminals are an important component of the whole human-right undertaking, and the guarantee of the human rights of criminals is related to the whole situation of the human-right guarantee work of China.[page]

2. Intensifying the guarantee of the human rights of criminals will help guarantee the safety and stability of prisons and the construction of a harmonious society.

To guarantee the safety and stability of prisons is an urgent need for China to implement the viewpoint of scientific development in a comprehensive way, and meet the urgent need of the construction of the socialist harmonious society. Through the fair law enforcement, the civilized management, and the true respect for and protection of the human rights of criminals during the course of executing punishments by the people’s policemen in prisons, we shall create a favorable environment for criminals to be reformed through labor, eliminate the criminals’ hostile consciousness, stabilize their emotion, encourage them to receive reform in ease, replace “being required to be reformed” with “voluntarily asking for reform,” eliminate hidden perils of safety from origin, and safeguard the safety and stability of prisons. Meanwhile, under the stable and orderly supervision, control and reform environment, we may better implement the basic principle for the prison work — “combining punishments with transformation, and taking the transformation of persons as the aim,” correct various unhealthy thoughts and behaviors of criminals, and help criminals cultivate good moral characters and habits of respecting others, respecting society, showing concern about the collective, abiding by the law and discipline, paying attention to civilization and observing good manners, so as to eliminate unharmonious factors for the construction of the socialist harmonious society.

3. Safeguarding the human rights of criminals is a requirement for upholding the management of prisons according to law, and building modernized and civilized prisons.

Managing prisons according to law is the premise for guaranteeing the human rights of criminals, and the internal need for guaranteeing the human rights of criminals. The construction of modernized and civilized prisons must put into effect the management of prisons according to law, promote the transparency of prison affairs, and safeguard the rights of criminals in a down to earth way. During the whole course of execution from the detention of criminals to their release, the prison administration, education and reform of criminals must be fair and transparent; and we shall act strictly according to law, respect and safeguard the due rights of criminals, and require prisons to perform their obligations. Meanwhile, we shall, through the establishment and betterment of the guarantee system for criminals’ rights, abolish some old viewpoints on the prison work, clarify the criminals’ legal positions, further improve the law-enforcing level of the people’s police in prisons, and further promote the adoption of scientific, civilized and normalized management of prisons, which will play an active role. The above-mentioned contents are important contents of the construction of the modernized and civilized prisons, and the realization of these objectives will speed up the construction of the modernized and civilized prisons.[page]

4. Strengthening the guarantee of the human rights of criminals will help to better mobilize their enthusiasm for accepting transformation.

Strengthening the guarantee of the human rights of criminals, specifying their legal positions, safeguarding their legitimate rights and interests, and giving them humanitarian treatment can make criminals feel the government and society’s concern for them and efforts to rescue them, and enable criminals to be filled with hopes for their self-transformation. These measures will have active accelerating role in mobilizing the criminals’ enthusiasm for transformation, and improving the quality of transformation. Through the effective measures, the prisons will truly respect and protect the rights of criminals, make them to be protected and restricted by law, and enable them to feel the dignity and power of law. It will play an active promoting role in helping criminals to set up the legal consciousness, cultivate the behavior habit of abiding by law and discipline, perform their legal obligations conscientiously, accept education and reform, and make up their mind to start their lives afresh.

II.The human rights of criminals are safeguarded in an all-round way in China

The prison in China is an organ of the state for executing criminal punishments. In recent years, China has attached more importance to the protection of the rights of criminals, to the education of criminals and to their transformation while giving them necessary punishments according to law. We have always upheld an important guiding ideology that people can be transformed, and it is also true to criminal offenders. We have always maintained that criminals should be transformed with hopes; and that we shall spare no effort to transform criminals into citizens who abide by laws and regulations, so as to turn negative factors into positive factors, turn destructive factors into constructive factors, and make new and active contributions to the construction of a socialist harmonious society.[page]

1. The scientific and civilized control of criminal offenders according to law is practiced.

China has always persisted in ruling prisons according to law, strictly prohibited beating, cursing and corporally punishing criminals, and strictly forbidden the use of various kinds of tortures or tortures in disguised form. If tortures are found in a prison, the cases will be resolutely investigated and dealt with, and the relevant personnel will be subject to punishments according to law. We have embodied the prison civilization during the strict enforcement of law, rectified the criminals’ bad habits and promoted the cultivation of criminals’ normal behaviors through scientific control. China has joined the UN Convention Against Torture. On the basis of advocating humanitarianism, China adopts the scientific and civilized control of criminals according to law. A prison shall practice separate custody and separate control with respect to male adult criminals, female adult criminals, juvenile delinquents and criminals with foreign nationalities. In addition, according to the types of crimes, the categories of punishments, the terms of imprisonment and the performance of criminals, prisons in China practice the separate custody of criminals and adopt different control methods. Special requirements are raised for the administrative personnel and control methods of foreign criminals, female and juvenile prisoners. In the actual work, the rights of the foreign criminals, national minority Chinese criminals, female criminals and juvenile prisoners are under special protection; and considerations are given to their special culture, traditions, customs, habits, lifestyles and physiological and psychological characteristics. The prisons in China also attach great importance to the spiritual life of criminals. Almost all the prisons in China have libraries, reading rooms, wallboards, blackboard newspapers, singing groups and theatrical performance teams; various kinds of sports matches are held regularly in the prisons; and great efforts have been made to strengthen the cultural construction in the prisons, so as to create a healthy and active atmosphere for all the criminal offenders. Since 1994, the prisons in China have started an activity of founding modern civilized prisons, and adopted the modern, civilized and scientific methods and means to transform criminals, so as to improve the prisons’ management level and the quality of transformation. Up to now, over 90 modern civilized prisons at the ministry level have come forth throughout the country.[page]

2. Attaching great importance to safeguarding the development right of criminal offenders.

The prisons in China follow the principle of “combining punishments with transformation, and taking the transformation of persons as the aim”; and transforming criminals into law-abiding citizens and laborers who can earn their own living is the aim of all the prison work. Since the 1980s, China has launched an activity of running special schools on a large scale in prisons, and remarkable achievements have been made. The cultural education in prisons takes primary education and junior secondary education as the major part, and the criminals with a good cultural basis may receive higher education. The prisons in China make comprehensive arrangement for vocational education according to the transformation of criminals through labor and the employment after they are released upon completion of sentences. Those who pass the examinations will receive certificate for various levels of technical proficiency issued by the local labor or education departments. The prisons throughout the country have run various kinds of cultural classes and technical training classes. Over the past decade or so, millions of criminals have obtained certificates or diplomas of various levels, and various technical certificates. According to incomplete statistics, in the past few years, the criminals have won 507 invention patents in total; completed 13,713 technical innovations; finished 1,186 inventions; and won 1,191 awards at the scientific and technological competitions organized by the governments at or above the prefecture (city) level. Many criminals are turning their terms of imprisonment into semesters in the prison to learn skills and techniques. In this way, the persons released after serving their sentence may stand on their own feet in society. Many of them have achieved great successes, and realized their own life value. As a result, their individual rights have been totally restored. In addition, some prisons have invited the “labor market” to the prisons, and introduced the criminals to be released after serving their sentences to the employing units, an action which has been well received by criminals and employing units. They have created conditions for urging criminals to return to society, and become law-abiding citizens who can earn their own living.[page]

3. Making efforts to perfect the guarantee of the human rights of criminals during education and transformation.

During the service of the criminals’ sentences, we have strengthened the education and transformation of criminals, and urged them to start their life afresh, repent and turn over a new leaf, and return to society smoothly. It is the best and most fundamental guarantee of the human rights of criminals. In 2001, the Ministry of Justice put forward that the work of prisons should take the improvement of the transformation quality of criminals as the center, and the legalized, scientific and socialized construction of the prison work as the measure for improving the transformation quality of criminals. All these measures have been extensively popularized and deepened in all the prisons around the country, and the guarantee of the human rights of prisons has constantly been improved, enriched and perfected. Along with the constantly deepening reform of the prison control system, the broad masses of the people’s police have been extricated themselves from the heavy economic pressure, and now the limited police forces can focus on educating and transforming criminals, make efforts to improve the quality of education and transformation, and reinforce the protection of the human rights of criminals from various aspects. Meanwhile, many new transformation means and methods involving the psychological consultation for criminals and the appraisal of the quality of transformation have been applied. At present, the most prisons in China have started psychological consultation, correction and treatment, and remarkable results have been achieved. The objective, effective and scientific level of the transformation and education of criminals has been raised.

4. Constantly reinforcing the guarantee of the basic life of criminals.

Along with the gradual fulfillment of the readjustment of the layout of prisons and the comprehensive construction of prisons, the living and material conditions for criminals have been greatly improved, and the materials for criminals’ daily life are unified rationed and provided by the prison. The Prison Law specifies clearly that the meals in prison shall follow the standard set by the state. The prison not only has the ordinary dining hall, but also provides special food to the ethnic minority criminals according to their cooking habits, and consideration is given to the special habits and customs of criminals of ethnic minority groups. In addition, more consideration is given to sick criminals in terms of life and food. The food provided by the prison features the rational nourishment needs, safety, sanitation and guaranteed quantity and quality. As the prices of non-staple foods have kept going up rapidly, the prison has actively made coordinating work, trying every way to digest the influence brought forth by the price rise, guarantee the quantity of food supplied to criminals strictly according to the standard, constantly make efforts to improve criminals’ life, and safeguard their rights of securing the basic life in prison.[page]

5. Attaching great importance to the life and health of criminals.

To safeguard the health of criminals, the Prison Law specifies that a prison shall set up medical organs and living and sanitary facilities, and institute regulations on the life and sanitation of prisons. China has formed the three-level medical and epidemic prevention system for prisons — the central hospital of the Bureau of Prisons at the provincial level, the prison hospital (health center), and the clinic in the area where the prison is located, which can give sick criminals timely and free prevention and treatment. The Prison Law specifies that medical and health care of criminals shall be put into the public health and epidemic prevention program of the area in which the prison is located. Some prisons cooperate with local hospital to provide medical services, raising the prisons’ medical guarantee level. It fully reflects that the Chinese Government attaches great importance to the life and health right of criminals and the effective guarantee ability of the prisons’ medical and epidemic prevention system.

III. Actively promoting the reform and development of the prison work for the guarantee of the human rights of criminals

In recent years, the prison administration has adopted a series of effective reform measures to strengthen the implementation of the Criminal Law and improve the transformation quality of criminals, thus further promoting the new development of the human-right guarantee in prisons. The main reform measures adopted by the prisons are: Persisting in taking the socialist legal concept as the guidance, making efforts to promote the control of prisons according to law, and accelerating the legalization, scientization and socialization of the prison work; steadily promoting the experimental reform of the prison system by the Ministry of Justice with approval of the State Council; constantly perfecting the enforcing system of punishments; implementing the readjustment of the layout of the prison; sparing no effort to promote the IT building in prisons; putting into practice the criminal policy of combining punishment with leniency; promoting the transparency of prison affairs in an all-round way; launching the special rectification and reform activity focused on “standardizing the law-enforcing acts, and promoting fairness in law-enforcing process”; adopting the scientific and civilized management according to law; founding the legal-ideology warning education base in prisons according to law; starting the psychological correction for criminals; launching the cultural construction in the prison area and the correction activity for cases; and intensifying the vocational and technical education for criminals. In addition, China has actively started the research on the human rights in prisons, conducted exchanges with foreign countries, and adopted the supervision measures for the law-enforcing process. All these measures have played an active stimulating role in strengthening and ameliorating the prison work, improving the transformation quality of criminals, and promoting the human-right guarantee in prisons.[page]

1.Starting the legalized, scientific and socialized construction of the prison work and creating a favorable environment and atmosphere for guaranteeing the rights of criminals.

Improving the transformation quality of criminals, and transforming criminals into law-abiding citizens are the best guarantee for the human rights of criminals. In December 2002, the Ministry of Justice put forward the requirements for “promoting the legalized, scientific and socialized construction of the prison work, and working hard to improve the education and transformation quality of criminals.” The legalization of the prison work is the dynamic process that the prisons execute punishments, control prisons and manage various types of prison affairs according to law in line with the state’s laws and regulations, and the rules and regulations of the relevant departments; scientization refers to the dynamic process that prisons make use of new ideologies, way of thinking, methods and resources to form the theories, systems and mechanisms in conformation to the development of the situation, and the basic rule of the prison work; and socialization refers to the open activities that prisons, during the control work, adhere to combining specialized organs with the mass line, mobilize all active factors inside and outside of prisons, and participate in the transformation and correction of criminals by using diverse main bodies. Through the common efforts of the workers and staff members of the prison setup, the construction of the legalization, scientization and socialization of the prison work has made remarkable progress; the control of prisons according to law has been further implemented; the fair and civilized law-enforcing level has been constantly raised; the scientific level of the prison work has been remarkable strengthened; the means of transforming criminals have been more scientific; the modern information technologies have been extensively used in prisons; the control level of prisons has been constantly improved; the efforts to integrate and utilize social resources have been constantly strengthened; the effect of society’s participation in the transformation of criminals has been tentatively shown; and the transformation quality of criminals has been greatly improved.[page]

2.Steadily carrying out the reform of the prison system, and offering the system-related support to the human-right guarantee of criminals.

With approval of the State Council, the Ministry of Justice has conducted the experimental reform of the prison system in 14 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities), which were divided into two groups, focusing on the reform objectives of the “guarantee of full amount, separation of prisons from enterprises, separation of revenues from expenditures, and standardized operation,” so as to intensify the functions of prisons. At present, the main tasks of the experimental reform have been basically fulfilled; the objectives of the reform of the prison system have been basically realized; and the new prison system and operation mechanisms have taken shape. After the adoption of separating prisons from enterprises, a new prison control system has been basically formed; due to the adoption of separating revenues from expenditures, the prison funds are unhooked from the enterprises run by prisons; China has actively promoted the separation of prisons from society, and gradually solved the problem that society was run by prisons; China has actively ascertained the guarantee of funds, and basically established the guarantee system of the total funds for prisons; and prisons in China have gradually put into effect the supporting policy, and promoted the constant deepening of the reform. In general, the reform of the prison system has powerfully promoted the advance in the prison work; the responsibility of the prison as the punishment-enforcing organ has been better performed; the prison’s safety and stability has been better guaranteed; the education of criminals has been intensified; and the fair, uncorrupted, civilized and high-efficiency punishment-enforcing system has been perfected in a constant way; and the functions of prisons have been reinforced. On the basis of experiments, the national prison setup will, with approval of the State Council, reform the system in an all-round way in 2008. Along with the gradual establishment of a new system, the prison work in China will, within the framework of the new system, release more vitality, and advance in new and bigger steps.[page]

3.Implementing the readjustment project of the layout of the prison and constantly improving the law-enforcing environment in the prison.

In the early days of New China, according to the needs of preparing for war, and the principle of “not contending for profit with the people,” the prisons in China were basically built in the remote areas far away from the cities. Along with the social development and progress, the contradiction of the prison’s unreasonable layout has come into prominence. Many prisons in the remote regions and far away from the cities had the bad geographical conditions; the distribution of prisons was unbalanced; and the unevenly distributed prisons had insufficient abilities to put criminals in custody. Accordingly, the prisons could not bring into full play their functions. To help criminals with their transformation and return to society, guarantee the safety of prisons, and reduce the penalty execution cost, the prisons throughout the country, since 2001, have acted according to the requirements for a reasonable layout, an appropriate scale, scientific classification, perfect functions, a rational investment structure and IT control; worked out the plans in great earnest according to the Standards for the Construction of a Prison; and greatly promoted the readjustment of the layout of the prison. At present, the readjustment work of the prison’s layout has gone smoothly; and the central and local governments have invested a great amount of capital in over 300 projects for readjusting the layout. The layout readjustment has brought forth the deep and omni-directional changes in the prison work: Fundamental changes have taken place in the appearance of the prison and in the law-enforcing environment as well; the hardware facilities for the labor, study, rest and recreation of criminals have been remarkably improved; it is more convenient for the family members of criminals to pay visits and for society to start the assistance and education activities; and the basic human rights of criminals have been guaranteed in a more comprehensive, more substantial and more effective way.[page]

4.Speeding up the paces for the IT construction in the prison, and improving the control of the prison.

In 2006, the prisons in China formally initiated the IT construction: The National Plan for the IT Construction in Prisons was worked out, raising the definite requirements for the guiding ideology, objectives, tasks and main measures of the IT construction in prisons. China has started the building of the information bank of criminals; and the National Criterion for the Information Codes of Criminals, and the National Exchange Standard for the Information and Data of Criminals passed the examination and appraisal by experts, and were issued to the prisons throughout the country for implementation. In May 2007, the Ministry of Justice held the national work meeting on the IT construction of prisons in Nanjing, further making clear the new objectives, tasks and demands for the IT construction, and speeding up the paces for the IT construction in prisons. After the IT construction is completed according to the plan, an IT system with perfect applying functions will be formed, which will cover all the prisons, link all the prison-related networks, share all resources, and adopt the unified standards, thus further improving the efficiency and level of the control in prisons. At present, many prison administrations at the provincial level have set up the LANs and the electronic supervision and control system, and the computer information process has been extensively applied, which have played a good role and brought forth good results.[page]

5.Carrying out the criminal policy of combining punishment with leniency and truly safeguarding the human rights of criminals.

The essential of the criminal policy of combining punishment with leniency means to make a distinction between criminal acts, punish the criminals who should be severely punished, and show leniency to those who should be dealt with leniently, realize the unification of the legal effects and social effects, and reach the objective of punishing crimes and preventing from crimes. During the prison execution, “leniency” refers to pointing a way out. We believe that most of the criminals can be transformed and return to society smoothly, which will be conducive to bringing into play the functions of safeguarding the human rights in punishment. “Punishment” reflects the essential characteristic of the prison, and reflects the important mission of protecting society. During the punishment execution, we have upheld the implementation of the policies and systems on the prison work under the legal framework. As for commutation of punishment and release on parole, we have had a good command of applicable criminals and conditions, made clear that commutation of punishment and release on parole do not mean indulgence, but for the better realization of the punishment value. As for those criminals who have committed crimes and resisted transformation, we have punished them according law, cracking down on their criminal activities. As for those with light subjective evil tendency who have always abided by the prison’s regulations, actively received transformation and reform, shown good behaviors, and whose fatalness to society has been constantly reduced, we have offered them encouragement and rewards — some received the commutation of punishment, and the others were released on parole. Meanwhile, we have worked out the work mechanisms and systems according to the punishment policy of combining punishment with leniency, and specified the standards for punishment and leniency, so as to guarantee the implementation of the policy of combining punishment with leniency. We have persisted in putting the people first, implemented and embodied the punishment spirit and guaranteed the human rights of criminals. We have dealt with juvenile delinquents in light of adult criminals, and more consideration has been given to them in various aspects, making them fully feel the tolerance and warmth of society, and promoting them to correct their errors and make a fresh start, and return to society for self development.[page]

6.Promoting the prison affairs open in an all-round way and guaranteeing the fair and civilized law enforcement in the prison.

The control level and state of the prisons adapt to the social formation in which the prisons are located and to the civilized progress of society as well. To further popularize and implement the Party’s policy on the prison work — “combining punishment with transformation and taking the transformation of criminals as the aim” — and establish and perfect the supervision and restriction mechanisms, the prisons in China have made public the relevant regulations on the punishment execution, and the administration, education, labor, life and sanitation of prisons to which the people from all walks of life, criminals and criminals’ family members show great concern. The work disciplines of the people’s police in the prisons, and the rewarding and punishing measures, such as commutation of punishment, release on parole, and execution outside prison, through the announcement the telephone numbers for reporting offences and consultation, the establishment of the warden’s mail box, and the director and warden’s reception days and the employment of law-enforcing supervisors. All these have been notified all criminals, the family members of criminals and society through newspaper, TV, broadcasting, networks and promotion booklets; and the prisons in China have accepted complaints and reports on offences, and voluntarily received the supervision of the Party committees, governments, people’s congresses, Chinese people’s political consultative conferences and procurators at various levels, news media and the people from all walks of life, so as to promote fairness with openness and safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of criminals. During the practice, the Ministry of Justice issued the Regulations on Implementing “Two Types of Openness and One Supervision” during the Punishment Execution in Prisons (for trial implementation) in 1999; and the Ministry of Justice promulgated the Opinions on Implementing the Prison Affairs Open in the Prison Setup in 2001. The new measure known as the “Sunshine Project” has placed the law-enforcing activities in prisons under the extensive social supervision, strengthened the transparency of the law enforcement in prisons, promoted the rise of the law-enforcing level of the people’s police in prisons, eliminated the mystery of the prison work, reinforced the connection between prisons and society, effectively prevented from and restrained judicial corruption, mobilized the criminals’ enthusiasm for transformation, stabilized the transformation order in prisons, facilitated the improvement of the prisons’ control level, created the fair, open and just law-enforcing environment, propelled the fair and civilized law enforcement in prisons, and more effectively safeguarded the rights of criminals.[page]

Along with the constant development and progress of the prison work, the human-right guarantee in the prisons of China has been improved and developed. But we have consciously realized that the work on the human-right guarantee in prisons is confronting many new conditions and problems, and many aspects need to be further improved and perfected. Accordingly, we should not only constantly carry forward the successful experiences and methods, but also keep pace with the times, constantly make innovations, do a deepening research on the specialities of the human rights of criminals from a higher and more scientific level in terms of the contents, realization modes and guarantee mechanisms, correctly handle the relationship between the criminals’ human rights and obligations, and the relationship between the rights of criminals and the rights of victims and the functions and powers of the people’s police in prisons, put into practice the policy of combining punishment with leniency, secure the unification of the human-right guarantee of criminals and the transformation work in prisons, constantly promote the healthy development of the human-right guarantee work in prisons, and make due contributions to the development of China’s human-right cause.

(The author is Deputy Director of Bureau of Prison Administration, Ministry of Justice.)