In Memoriam of Former President Luo Haocai of China Society for Human Rights Studies
October 18,2018   By:
In Memoriam of Former President Luo Haocai
of China Society for Human Rights Studies

Luo Haocai, a famous overseas Chinese, jurist, educator and social activist, died of an illness on February 12, 2018, in Beijing at the age of 83. He had been an outstanding leader of the China Zhi Gong Party, vice chairman of the Ninth and Tenth National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), chairman of the 11th and 12th Central Committee of the China Zhi Gong Party, as well as an excellent member of the Communist Party of China. Besides, since 2007, he had served as president of the Third National Council of the China Society for Human Rights Studies (CSHRS) and honorary president of the Fourth National Council. He actively promoted the development of human rights undertaking in China and pointed out that China had gradually established a “Chinese model” for human rights protection and a way of human rights development with Chinese characteristics. He also played an important role in generating China’s human rights theory and promoting the foreign exchange and cooperation on human rights cause. In memoriam of President Luo Haocai, this journal publishes four commemorative articles by scholars on human rights.
Advocating Human Rights Protection by Rule of Law,
Supporting Human Rights Undertaking with a Giant Hand

Deep Condolences to Dear Former President Luo Haocai

Chairman Luo Haocai served as the president of CSHRS from 2007 to 2016. During those nine years, he built deep friendships with researchers on human rights. Because President Luo served as vice chairman of the National Committee of CPPCC for a long time, we were used to calling him “Chairman Luo.” Chairman Luo was a leader with strategic and overall awareness, a scholar-official, an elder with a young mentality, and a motivator and protector of young people.

On first meeting Chairman Luo, I found him stalwart in stature, handsome in appearance, white in hair, ruddy in complexion and imposing in manner, which made me a bit in awe of him. After a little contact, I found him to be approachable and amiable, with genial talk and manners, which made me feel like bathing in a spring wind.
As the president of CSHRS, Chairman Luo had a sharp strategic insight and a clear overall awareness. After taking office, he made a layout with an outline of the main points. He advocated and promoted qualified colleges and universities to establish human rights research centers, held working experience exchange meetings among national human rights research institutes, and give guidance to eight “National Human Rights Education and Training Bases.” He also organized the writing of Annual Report on China’s Human Rights (Blue Book) and the Almanac of China’s Human Rights, and founded the Beijing Forum on Human Rights. All those strategic actions had a far-reaching impact on the progress of China’s human rights research, education, training and communication.

When Chairman Luo assumed the position of president, he was already over 70 years old. However, his worked as hard as young people. He always had a schedule filled with difficult tasks, which he would spare no efforts to complete. Every year, Chairman Luo led a CSHRS delegation to visit various countries to conduct exchanges with the human rights authorities, committees, and government research institutes. During these exchanges, he had to know the ways, effects, and problems of human rights protection in those countries. Most importantly, he introduced the development of human rights in China and answered related questions, which effectively enhanced the understanding of China’s situation. Besides, Chairman Luo was particularly concerned with the development of human rights research institutes in colleges and universities. During his tenure, he visited all human rights research and training bases and dozens of human rights research centers in China. At every place, he would encourage human rights researchers to carry out human rights research, education and training, and ask government officials to raise awareness of human rights protection so that human rights issues could receive greater attention.

As a leader, Chairman Luo had a democratic working style. He was both willing to listen and good at listening. When a human rights academic seminar was held, Chairman Luo not only tried his best to arrange a time to participate and deliver speeches, he also listened to the speeches of others. He often participated in the whole conference and held discussions with various groups. When preparing speeches or important articles, he always called a meeting of scholars to listen to their opinions and gather their wisdom. The last time I met Chairman Luo was in 2016, when he gathered us together to discuss an article that would be published in the magazine Qiushi. Chairman Luo asked everyone to express their opinions freely. He listened carefully and asked the secretary to make a record.

As a senior, Chairman Luo focused on encouraging young people. I remember when CSHRS hosted the first Beijing Forum on Human Rights in 2008, I was the Chinese host in Group A. Chairman Luo had visited our group and listened to the discussions between Chinese and foreign experts. When foreign scholars raised some questions on the human rights situation in China, I did my best to answer them. It was my duty do so as a host and I felt my answers could be even better. So I was very surprised and inspired when Chairman Luo praised me after the conferences saying that I did a good job in hosting and answering questions. On trips overseas with Chairman Luo, he always made a principled answer first when asked by the foreign side, and then let us young people make a specific answer, which gave us confidence.

Chairman Luo paid special attention and gave strong support to the human rights research in Nankai University (NKU). On November 25, 2007, shortly after serving as president of CSHRS, he made a special trip to Center for the Study of Human Rights at NKU to conduct an investigation and hold a seminar with human rights experts and scholars. Prior to his visit, he said: “Don’t send too many leaders to accompany me. I mainly want to hear the report of the Center for the Study of Human Rights.” At the seminar, Chairman Luo spoke highly of the interdisciplinary and multi-view human rights research at our university and responded to our suggestions. Chairman Luo pointed out that although to respect and protect human rights had been included in the Constitution of the Communist Party of China and the Party’s reports, the social science community had not attached enough importance to human rights issues. He was in favor of the suggestion to carry out education on human rights awareness and wanted both people at the grassroots and officials to be educated on human rights because the Central Committee had issued clear policies, while their implementations depended on officials at all levels. On April 28, 2010, Chairman Luo visited NKU again to participate in the Second Work Experience Exchange Meeting of National Human Rights Research Institutes, which was held by CSHRS and undertaken by NKU. He delivered a speech at the opening ceremony. Chairman Luo pointed out that since the launch of reform and opening-up, especially in the past dozen years, China had made rapid progress in its human rights undertaking, but still had a long way to go. At that time, it was an important historical opportunity to promote the development of the country's human rights cause. He said that experts and scholars on human rights were shouldering a historical task that could not be shirked. They should and must take the responsibility and make great efforts in different fields, so as to continuously advance China’s human rights undertaking beyond resistance. On December 4, 2011, Chairman Luo visited NKU for a third time to participate in the opening ceremony of Center for the Study of Human Rights at NKU as one of the first batch of National Human Rights Education and Training Bases. Chairman Luo indicated that these bases had a positive effect on strengthening the construction of human rights theory, promoting the development of the human rights undertaking in China, and especially on training relevant personnel and enhancing the public awareness of human rights in China. Chairman Luo had gave our center much encouraging advise, including actively taking the lead in setting benchmarks, giving full play to human rights think tanks, boldly exploring human rights research, trying new forms of human rights education, finding new ways of training human rights personnel, and proactively going abroad to carry out international exchanges on human rights. Chairman Luo’s influence was a great encouragement for the human rights scholars in NKU to actively contribute to advancing the development of China’s human rights undertaking.

On February 13, 2018, on behalf of Center for the Study of Human Rights at NKU, we went to the mourning hall at Chairman Luo’s home to express our condolences. The elegiac couplet on the flower basket was written as follows: Holding up the Rule of Law to Bless China, Advocating Human Rights Protection to Benefit the Future.
By the side of Chairman Luo, we felt like we were sheltered under a tall tree and bathing in the sunny spring breeze. Although Chairman Luo has already left us, his smile and face will always stay in our memory. Just like the stars and moon in the sky, he will concern us and inspire us forever to push forward the human rights undertaking in China.
For the Balance Between Rights and Power

In Remembrance of Former CSHRS President Luo Haocai
LIU Huawen*
Mr. Luo Haocai taught at Peking University Law School for a long time. Even though he held such important positions as vice president of Peking University (PKU), chairman of the Central Committee of China Zhi Gong Party, vice president of the Supreme People’s Court, and vice chairman of the Ninth and Tenth National Committee of the CPPCC, he preferred being called “Teacher Luo.” My frequent interactions with Teacher Luo started in 2007 and continued to 2016 when he was the president of the CSHRS.

I. The Ideal President

Good laws and governance cannot be realized without human rights, so the rule of law and human rights are inseparable. In this sense, as a legal scholar, Teacher Luo devoted himself to promoting the human rights undertaking in China. Teacher Luo was a pioneer and founder of Chinese administrative law. Besides, he once served as the “Grand Justice” of the Supreme People’s Court of China and as a leader of the democratic parties and overseas Chinese. Thus, he had profound academic accomplishments and was of a noble character and had high prestige. Our colleagues often said that he was the ideal president for CSHRS. But the “ideal” not only reflected Luo’s qualifications, but also described and summarized Luo’s personal practice.

When Luo was the president of CSHRS, he effectively facilitated the development of China’s human rights cause. Under the impetus of him and the Society, there are dozens of human rights research institutes established in Chinese universities, and eight national human rights education and training bases established nationwide. The communication and connection between the government and human rights education and research institutes in colleges and universities have been obviously strengthened, and human rights education and research have gradually become a famous doctrine in China and been prosperous. The CSHRS regularly publishes an Annual Report on China’s Human Rights (Blue Book) and the Almanac of China’s Human Rights. He supported the CSHRS holding annual seminars on human rights theory and conducting exchanges with other human rights education institutes, where he often sat in the first row and carefully recorded what was said. He also supported human rights scholars to participate in the formulation of national legislation and policies on human rights, and human rights research institutes to “go global”, so as to exchange and cooperate with foreign governments, non-governmental organizations, and human rights education and research institutes. The Beijing Forum on Human Rights established by the CSHRS has been successfully held for eight times and has become a brand of China’s human rights on external exchanges. Each session has been attended by over 100 experts, scholars and officials from many different countries, the United Nations and other international organizations. Even President Xi Jinping once sent a congratulatory message to the opening of a forum.

Teacher Luo was not a person who only sat in study. He had always emphasized investigation and research. Every year he went to different places and his footprints have covered the whole country. At every place, he discussed with local officials and scholars on human rights from colleges and universities, listened to their opinions, and supported them in summing up their experiences and innovations in the field of human rights. At many places there was no human rights teaching and even human rights were regarded as sensitive topics, while the arrival of highly respected Teacher Luo and his investigation often formed an opportunity to effectively draw local attention to human rights education, research and practice. He also spared no pains to visit the United States and other developed countries in the West, as well as Cuba and other developing countries to communicate with officials, old and new friends of the academic and overseas communities. His academic quality, personal charisma, and leadership made the work of the CSHRS orderly with remarkable results, winning widespread respect and praise from home and abroad.

II. A Jurist Leading Development

Teacher Luo tutored doctoral students at PKU, but he never stopped writing. His monograph, Soft Law is a Law - Public Governance Calls for Rule of Soft Law, won an Outstanding Achievements Award (First Prize) in Chinese Law, which was awarded by the China Law Society in 2011. It has also been translated into different languages and published abroad. Besides, in the past two years, we often saw academic papers on newspapers or academic journals, which he wrote by himself or with colleagues.

Teacher Luo had an important position and influence in academia, which depended not on the number of monographs and essays he published, but on his pioneering and leading role in academic thinking. The social governance in China has long been characterized by “big government and small society.” How should we deal with the relationship between “officials” and “the people” in China? How should Chinese administrative laws develop? In view of this, Teacher Luo took the lead to put forward “balanced” administrative law. He cared about the theory and practice of Chinese administrative law, especially judicial practice. He promoted the formulation, revision and implementation of the Chinese Administrative Litigation Law. In December 2013, colleagues from the CSHRS and myself accompanied Teacher Luo to an exclusive interview for the Starface program of Phoenix TV. At the end, the hostess Wu Xiaoli invited him to write a sentence for the program and he wrote down: “For the Balance between Rights and Power.”

At the beginning of a century, how can we promote the rule of law, ensure the enacted laws are really put into practice, and achieve the goals of the legislation for the rule of law? To solve it, Teacher Luo built the first soft law center at PKU and put forward the “rule of soft law.” Compared with the traditional national governance model, he emphasized flexible governance, that is, to give full play to the enthusiasm and initiative of the grassroots, non-governmental and professional forces, and the governance of social soft rules that are different from formal national legislation. He was a pioneer in the current policies and theories that are strengthening and innovating social governance, as well as a representative figure advocating soft law research and practice in the legal field worldwide. Later a number of soft law research institutes were established throughout the country and an interdisciplinary Soft Law Research Institute of China Behavior Law Association was established on the national scale. Because I conducted some research on human rights soft law combined with national and international laws, Teacher Luo recommended me to join in this Research Institute to serve as vice president.
His students span the country, many of them are outstanding professionals at Chinese universities and legal practice departments. I knew one student at a local college in the south wrote to Teacher Luo, the then vice president of PKU, to express his opinions and wishes. Teacher Luo not only responded to him in person, but also gave ardent encouragement. The student has now become the backbone of the teaching at PKU. I sincerely admired Luo’s ability to recognize talent and his spirit to encourage and cultivate it. Instead of depending on himself, he advanced the development of China’s jurisprudence, the rule of law, and human rights undertaking with the collective efforts of many people around him.

III. A Generous and Benevolent Person

Teacher Luo was always able to see the direction of social development and make leading theoretical judgments. However, he was by no means an aggressive authority. You can always feel the kindness and tolerance of him. In foreign activities and other small meetings, he often asked all the participants to express their opinions. He preferred to speak less rather than leave one silent. In my opinion, his willingness to listen to others outperformed ordinary people. Even though he was quite old and some seminars were very lengthy, he would listen to them and record them to the end, and he would not intervene in others’ conversations casually. Some discussions, especially young people’s discussions in the classroom and speeches at informal meetings, may be naive, biased or rude. What’s more, the young people may speak different views with him or criticize his views, giving no consideration to his status. But he would listen to all their views kindly.

Teacher Luo devoted a lot of time and energy to his work, and always emphasized collective efforts and teamwork. I once went to conduct field investigation with Teacher Luo. Even though the road was bumpy, he discussed soft law issues with me all the way on the minibus. Teacher Luo often shared with students or colleagues of the research institutes new research materials or trends he had recently discovered. He would kindly say that we should read the new works published by scholars in the Taiwan region or in other countries and communicated with scholars who visited Beijing. We found that his reading, including information he found on the internet, was more that of many young people.

At home and abroad, I have met many people be they students, judges, administrative officials, media reporters, or ordinary people, who speak very respectfully of Teacher Luo, and I have never seen anyone offend Teacher Luo because they did not know or understanding him. Instead of caring about personal gains and losses and stiff etiquette, he considered the feelings of others and treated people in good faith whether they be ordinary people, subordinates, or students who met him. He could read others’ minds. For example, he could find the people who want to take photo with him and say the request for them. He would also thank the waiters and chefs who received him.

In his early years, Teacher Luo was put in prison by the British when pursuing freedom and justice in Singapore. Back in the motherland, he was a firm patriot and became a senior jurist, Grand Justice, the chairman of Central Committee of China Zhi Gong Party, an important democratic party, and the vice chairman of the National Committee of CPPCC, one of the most important political organizations in China. He led the work of the CSHRS, China’s most important national agency for human rights research and the promotion of human rights, promoted the progress of administrative law and human rights law in China, and made great contributions to the undertakings of human rights, the rule of law and education. Thus Teacher Luo had witnessed the development of democracy, the rule of law, and human rights in modern China. Although he has left us, his spirit will inspire us forever.
Stars are his Essays, Patriots are Like him

Contributions of Teacher Luo Haocai to the Human Rights Undertaking in China

It has been more than a decade since I met Teacher Luo Haocai. Before I met him, I had already heard that he was an approachable scholar. Although he was at a high position and played a leading role in establishing China’s administrative law, he always had a peaceful mind, which was highly respected and honored by colleagues in the academic community. After I actually met him, I was deeply impressed by the unpretentious style of Teacher Luo, who was a true gentleman. Every time I saw him, I was very comfortable. I always felt regretful that the time spent with him went too fast to let me have enough conversation with him. At field investigations and meetings, Teacher Luo particularly liked to discuss practical issues with others and listen to their opinions. Together with Teacher Luo, you could find that his thoughts and ideas, filled with patriotic spirits, are always centered on the development of the country and the needs of the society. Even during the break, Teacher Luo would sit down to read and study. How admirable!

During his tenure as president of CSHRS, Teacher Luo frequently published articles on human rights to lead human rights research to meet the needs of society, which set a good example for others; on the other hand, he often tirelessly visited universities and research institutes around the country, where he would encourage people to study more on human rights, promote more universities and colleges to establish human rights research institutes, broaden human rights research, and contribute to the progress of the country and the rule of law. The development and expansion of the Institute for Human Rights of China University of Political Science and Law received much help and support from Teacher Luo. In July 2009, he wrote a special letter congratulating us on the opening of the first domestic summer camp for human rights and encouraging us to make the camp a model for human rights education in China. In December 2011, Teacher Luo made a special trip to our university to personally hang up the sign “Human Rights Education and Training Base” for our institute. Even in hospital, Teacher Luo had been worried about the construction of human rights high-end think tanks and directed the relevant declaration work on phone. At that time, his breath was weak, but he still had clear thinking. He also said that when he felt a little better, he would discuss face to face with us in detail. It did not occur to me that that phone call would be my last conversation with Teacher Luo.

Even though Teacher Luo has gone, he set an example of how to conduct oneself, keep achieving things, and keep learning. These days, there are many articles commemorating Teacher Luo on the internet and social media, which recall the great lifetime of Teacher Luo from the aspects of his personal and academic life. As an inferior on human rights who have received Teacher Luo’s instruction, I hope to review his great contribution to the cause of human rights in China from his articles and speeches, so as to express our grief and yearning to him.

I. Devotion to Get Human Rights out of Sensitive Issues and Publicize them

For a long time, many people in China criticized and rejected human rights as bourgeois values. In response to this real issue, Teacher Luo mobilized scholars to think deeply about “desensitizing” human rights issues on the basis of extensive research. He always used his own ways to explain the scientific understanding to human rights on different occasions, so as to promote the discourse of human rights emerging from being sensitive to a concept that is widely accepted. In 2011, at the theoretical symposium, “Development and Innovation of China’s Human Rights Theory and Practice”, hosted by the CSHRS, Teacher Luo pointed out that “to respect and protect human rights” was written into the both Constitution of the Communist Party of China and the Constitution of the country, and more and more laws and regulations on the human rights protection undertaking had been issued, which basically solved the problem that human rights protection had no laws to adhere to. However, there were still many deficiencies in the development of the human rights undertaking, especially the existence of certain imbalances in human rights law. He said, in future, it was necessary to deepen human rights research, promote human rights education, participate in government work on human rights issues, and strengthen international human rights exchanges.

At the Beijing Forum on Human Rights held that year, Teacher Luo pointed out at the opening ceremony that human rights are also cultural, so their protection cannot be separated from a culture, and multiculturalism had spawned multiple values and human rights views. Historically, the promotion of human rights concepts and the popularization of the human rights discourse had never depended on a specific human rights culture, but the intersection and fusion of diverse cultures. Teacher Luo believed that China has a long-standing and well-established culture, in which much essential thought constituted the ideological resources for modern concepts of “human rights.” Teacher Luo’s accurate interpretation of the concepts of human rights promoted those concepts so they went from the study to the general public and from text to reality, thus taking root in China.

II. Emphasis on Using Concepts and Methods of Human Rights to Guide the Development of the Country and Society

Teacher Luo once pointedly stated that if we want to mobilize all positive forces to jointly advance China’s human rights cause and build a community with a shared future for mankind, we should adhere to the leadership of the Communist Party of China and integrate human rights construction into all aspects of the Party’s and government’s works. First of all, the construction of the rule of law cannot be separated from the respect and protection of human rights. Teacher Luo wrote in People’s Daily that only by practicing a people-centered approach and comprehensively using the two methods of the rule of law, both hard and soft, can we achieve the goal of building a law-based country, government and society. Similarly, the realization of human rights cannot be separated from the construction of the rule of law. While president of CSHRS, Teacher Luo suggested that we must adhere to the principle of promoting the construction of human rights in China comprehensively and pragmatically according the law. Teacher Luo published an article on the front page of the Study Times to explain the close relationship between human rights and the rule of law. He pointed out that the realization of human rights must be ultimately guaranteed by the rule of law, and their full realization was also the ultimate goal of the rule of law. Holding up the concept of combining human rights with the rule of law, Teacher Luo adhered to the protection of human rights and defending the dignity of the law both when he drafted and formulated the Administrative Litigation Law and other laws, and when he handled the case as the judge of the Supreme People’s Court. He took actions to advance the practice of the concept that “all people are equal before the law with no privilege.”

People’s livelihoods are also closely linked with human rights. Teacher Luo pointed out that improving people’s livelihoods and human rights protection were people-oriented. To a certain degree, improving people’s livelihoods was shown as a human right in the legal field. Teacher Luo believed that taking people’s livelihoods as a focus, priority and basis had become the characteristic in China’s human rights cause. China should give priority to the development of rights related to improving people’s livelihoods, adhere to the key strategic judgment that “development is the key to solving all problems in our country,” and insist on putting the right to development in a prominent position. Of course, to develop the human rights cause, the state should not only give prominence to improving people’s livelihoods and to dealing with the rights and interests of the people, but also pay more attention to adhering to the principle of comprehensive promotion of human rights. Only by fully balancing civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights, can real human rights protection be achieved.
Both the construction of the rule of law and the improving of people’s livelihoods need to be based on China's national conditions. In 2016, Teacher Luo wrote for Qiushi to systematically summarize the historical progress made in China’s human rights cause and elaborate on the importance of integrating the universality principle of human rights into China’s reality. Teacher Luo believed that the “Chinese model” of human rights protection can better combine the universality of human rights with the relativity of human rights protection, one of whose characteristics is the coordination of sovereignty and human rights. From a philosophical perspective, concepts of human rights and sovereignty are contradictory, but the contradiction can only be found in one aspect, not in all. Western countries always talk about human rights based on the contradiction between individual rights and State power, so they hold the view that human rights go against State power, which is related to their historical and cultural traditions. Some Western countries also adopt a double standard on human rights issues, which have caused conflicts in the international community. In China, while adhering to international human rights standards on basic national conditions, the human rights cause should especially lay emphasis on coordinating economic, political, cultural, social life, and ecological civilization. With the participation and promotion of Teacher Luo for many years, China has embarked on a human rights development path with Chinese characteristics, which takes people’s livelihoods as the priority and tries to fully realize human rights protection when promoting socialist construction, and forming human rights concepts and a discourse system with Chinese characteristics.

III. Promotion of Human Rights Education and Establishment of National Human Rights Education and Training Bases

After becoming the president of the CSHRS in 2007, Teacher Luo took vigorous actions to promote human rights education and the cultivation of a human rights culture in China. With his concerns, the first batch of national human rights education and training bases were firstly established at Nankai University, China University of Political Science and Law, and Guangzhou University, which had delivered outstanding development. In 2014, Renmin University of China, Fudan University, Wuhan University, Shandong University and Southwest University of Political Science and Law were selected into the second batch of national human rights education and training bases. Teacher Luo asked these human rights organizations to actively cultivate and disseminate human rights culture, and urged the human rights experts and scholars to proactively use their professional expertise to cultivate and disseminate the “two-track” model of human rights culture in China, via institutional platforms, individual research platforms, and social channels. The first track is to vigorously carry out theoretical discussions and field investigations in the academic and intellectual communities, so as to gradually form a socialist human rights cultural value system with Chinese characteristics, which should conform to the times, follow the law and display great creativity. The second track is to, on the principle of promoting the sound social development according to opinions of scholars, actively expound the core values and concepts related to human rights protection through media coverage and scholars’ participation in typical public events and cases, so as to promote the formation of a cultural atmosphere to respect and protect human rights in the whole society.
Now, under the guidance of the CSHRS, China has built a multidisciplinary human rights research force which comprises universities, research institutes, and related experts across the country. The Chinese academic community has translated and published a large number of foreign human rights research works, compiled systematic human rights research materials, and published a large number of research works and academic papers on human rights. It has also widely spread human rights knowledge and conducted human rights education in society.

IV. Active Encouragement for Cooperation and Exchanges with Foreign Human Rights Research and Education Institutions

Teacher Luo advocated that domestic experts and scholars carry out exchanges and visits, and invite foreign guests to truly know China. To this end, in 2013 when China received the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) by the United Nations Human Rights Council, the CSHRS held a conference on the theme “Human Rights in China: a Holistic Research Approach” at the Palace of Nations in Geneva. This was the first time that the CSHRS organized a delegation to participate in the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) of the UN Human Rights Council, and that Chinese civil society had appeared on this occasion.

The internationally renowned Beijing Forum on Human Rights was advocated and founded by Teacher Luo, providing a platform for human rights scholars and experts from all over the world to discuss the development of human rights cause in their countries and even the world. At meetings of the forum, Teacher Luo encouraged everyone to find the problems first, and to think of ways to promote the great development of the cause of human rights, which should be good for the overall development of human society. It can be seen that Teacher Luo was so broad-minded that he cared for the whole world and sought harmony but not uniformity, which has won widespread acclaim and praise from the international community. He not only sought to eliminate the misunderstandings of the international community about China, but also continuously expanded the circle of China's friends. Shortly after the announcement of the death of Teacher Luo, some overseas friends sent letters to express their deep condolences and asked to offer flower baskets to pay tribute to him. They said that Mr. Luo had built many friendly channels for human rights exchanges and cooperation between China and foreign countries. Without his selfless help, the flowers of human rights could not burst into bloom. Teacher Luo was a great man worthy of everyone’s respect.

Teacher Luo Haocai struggled for freedom, democracy, and human rights throughout his life. He had been imprisoned when young due to his rebellion against British colonial rule in Sinagapore. In pursuit of freedom, he left his parents and family to go back to his motherland, and then fought for China’s development and prosperity all his life. Even when over 70 years old, Teacher Luo still dedicated himself to human rights research and education, leaving many valuable ideological treasures for all mankind. I believe that his noble personality and charisma will always be part of China's human rights history and be emulated by future generations.
Like Mountains and Waters, His Demeanor Lasts Forever

In Memoriam of Former CSHRS President Luo Haocai
                                                                                    ZHANG Yonghe*

On November 3, 2011 when I attended the experience exchange meeting for human rights institutions held at Sichuan University, I had my first close contact with Teacher Luo Haocai. At the meeting, I gave a speech on the theme of the history and status quo of human rights research and teaching at Southwest University of Political Science and Law (SWUPL). At lunchtime, Teacher Luo went to the restaurant with us to eat buffet, when he specially asked me to his table and further inquired about the human rights research and teaching situation at SWUPL. Then I boldly invited him to SWUPL at his convenience to guide the human rights research and teaching. I did not expect that Teacher Luo would swiftly say that he would change his schedule immediately to conduct a visit to SWUPL as soon as possible.

In the morning of November 14, 2011, Teacher Luo and his colleagues came to SWUPL to find out what we were doing and hold discussions. After listening to the work reports of Fu Zitang, president of the SWUPL and director of the Center of Human Rights Education and Research (renamed as Human Rights Research Institute in 2016), he said that as the Huangpu Military Academy in the political and legal system, SWUPL had cultivated a large number of excellent talents for China, and it was at the forefront of research on human rights theory and undertaking, so he hoped to draw on our experience, through this visit, to promote the research on human rights theory and the development of human rights undertaking. He also praised our university for integrating seven research centers related to human rights research into the SWUPL Center of Human Rights Education and Research. He said: “SWUPL used to forge ahead. I believe that the SWUPL Center of Human Rights Education and Research is and will be at the front too. SWUPL has done a particularly good job in integrating seven research centers into Center of Human Rights Education and Research, which show your good plans and prospects!”

Luo also hoped that the SWUPL would further broaden the research on human rights theory and attach importance to soft law research on environmental protection, climate, and other aspects. Later, Teacher Luo gave me a special guidance on those issues, and I no longer considered him only as the CSHRS president, but also as a teacher. In 2013, I published an article in Thinking, titled The Power of Soft Law, which mainly discussed the effectiveness of international law. When writing it, I had received guidance and compliments from Teacher Luo. It’s published form can also be seen as a return to his guidance. Last year, my daughter, Zhang Qihao, talked with me about the large number of new businesses in China and the resulting regulatory issues. I encouraged her to pay attention to the derived soft law problems. Then, she published a paper in Law Science Magazine, namely, the “Rise of ‘Soft Law’ on New Internet Businesses and its Regulations”. I still hope that Teacher Luo’s soul will feel a little gratified.

From December 26 to 28, 2012, the Fourth Work Experience Exchange Meeting of the National Human Rights Research Institutes was held in Chongqing, which was organized by the CSHRS and undertaken by the SWUPL Center for Human Rights Education and Research. During his tenure as CSHRS president, Teacher Luo gave full play to his foresight and vision as a jurist, educator, and scholar. One of his outstanding contributions was that he advocated and promoted universities to establish human rights research centers, strengthen the research on human rights theory and practice, continuously organize exchanges with national human rights research institutes, and establish national human rights education and training bases. On the one hand, this action enhanced the connection and cooperation between the CSHRS and universities, further broadening and upgrading the research of CSHRS. On the other hand, it had far-reaching significance in further strengthening the research on human rights theory in universities to better serve China’s human rights cause. While serving as the CSHRS president, Teacher Luo was already over 70 years old, but he still led the CSHRS to promote the development of human rights cause in China. At that time, as parts of SWUPL, of human rights researchers and of the Human Rights Research Institute, SWUPL, which is the National Human Rights Education and Training Base, we had learned lots of theories of Teacher Luo and felt his gentle and cultivated demeanor.

The theme of the working experience exchange meeting was “Learn to Practice the Spirit of the 18th National Congress of CPC and further Promote Human Rights Education and Training.” In his keynote speech at the opening ceremony, Teacher Luo pointed out that in the past few years, China’s human rights research institutes had developed rapidly and achieved outstanding results, while in the future, they would need to further advance human rights education and research from four aspects: first, continuing to strengthen human rights education and training; second, strengthening the research on basic theory of human rights and practical experience to promote theoretical innovation; third, strengthening the construction of human rights research institutes and increasing their exchanges; and fourth, strengthening international exchanges. He emphasized that to realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation required the unremitting efforts of every individual, who under the guidance of the spirit of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, must do solid human rights research, actively play the role of human rights institutes, expand the new phase of human rights research work and advance the human rights cause continuously, so as to contribute to the building of a moderately prosperous society in all aspects. During the meeting, Teacher Luo visited the Center of Human Rights Education and Research at the SWUPL. He spoke highly of the work done by SWUPL and our center, especially the center’s works on the research of Marxist human rights theory, human rights education and training, human rights empirical research, and promotion of human rights concepts. When the staff introduced him the China Human Rights Review, a publication sponsored by the center, Teacher Luo encouraged us: “This is the first of its type in China!” During the visit to the human rights empirical research picture exhibition of our center, Teacher Luo, seeing pictures of various activities propagating the National Action Plan for Human Rights, praised us: “Well done. Well done.” Without an elevator, we need to climb 98 stairs to our offices upstairs. Everyone felt that the stairs were too long to let him go, but he still insisted on going. In an office, he had browsed the web page of the Research Institute, and praised the web design and content layout.

Then, he went to my office and saw that my seat was large. He sat down and said happily, “Let me take the seat of the director.” The amiable and approachable voice was really touching. When reading my master’s thesis “On Human Rights Protection”, he said: “It’s not easy to have such a sense before China’s first white paper book of human rights is published. It’s not easy!”

Teacher Luo visited our school three times in all and gave selfless guidance to the Human Rights Research Institute, SWUPL. On December 14, 2013, the first summit forum with the theme of “Development of Democratic Politics and the Construction of the Rule of Law in China” was held at the SWUPL. Teacher Luo attended the forum and delivered an enthusiastic speech.  He expounded on the necessity of building socialism on the basis of the rule of law from the perspective of legal construction of the political and social community. He believed that hard law alone was far from enough, and soft law, which was different from national legislation, also played an irreplaceable and active role in the legal construction, so that to promote the construction of the socialist rule of law in China required the combination and mutual complementation of soft and hard law.

On July 22, 2014, the Ministry of Education and the State Council Information Office held the award ceremony for the second batch of national human rights education and training bases such as the Human Rights Education and Research Center, SWUPL. Teacher Luo attended the ceremony where he congratulated us, gave us much encouragements, and had his photo taken with the participants from our school.

In December 2014, President Fu Zitang and I paid a visit to Teacher Luo in Beijing, when he happened to be in the office of Peking University Law School. He also gave guidance and encouragement to our work. He said: “Now that you have built a national base. With it, you must give full play to your role. You have the ability and a very good team. You have done a great job in your investigations. Among them, the investigation of human rights ideas is very unique. In the future, you should take advantage of your strengths and do more such investigations, which are telling China’s stories.” He also said: “Compared with the late 1980s and early 1990s, significant and profound changes have taken place in international human rights opinion environment, which also provide unprecedented opportunities for developing the human rights research in our country. You have the responsibility, conditions, and ability to play a greater role.”

After the visit, he insisted on inviting us to have dinner to talk more. At dinner, he offered sincere guidance on the development of our Human Rights Research Institute. When I told him that on November 24th, People’s Daily used the title of “Desensitization to the Concept of Human Rights” for the interview with Human Rights Research Institute, SWUPL, he was very excited and said, “All right. It’s amazing that the party newspaper said so.” It can be said that without Teacher Luo’s guidance and concerns, the Human Rights Research Institute of SWUPL would not have achieved the development it has today.

When Teacher Luo was seriously ill, President Fu Zitang and I many times hoped to visit him in the hospital. However, due to the hospital’s management regulations and our worry about disturbing him, we didn’t make the visit, which is our biggest regret now. We greeted him through his secretary and hoped that he would recover soon. Once I contacted the secretary, he told me that Teacher Luo was still concerned about human rights research even on his sickbed. Whenever there was a message that Human Rights Research Institute at SWUPL had made some achievements, he would tell Teacher Luo, who would then seem to be very happy. Even when seriously ill, Teacher Luo still cared about the development of Human Rights Research Institute at the SWUPL, which made me deeply touched.

Even though Teacher Luo has gone, his noble demeanor, broad mind, meticulous attitude toward study, and love and tolerance for the younger generation still inspire us to continue to work hard and contribute to the continuous development of China’s human rights cause.
(Translated by LI Man)

* CHANG Jian ( 常健 ), Director of the Research Center for Human Rights, Nankai University.
* LIU Huawen ( 柳华文 ), Executive Director of Human Rights Research Center, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.
* ZHANG Wei ( 张伟 ), Co-director of Institute for Human Rights, China University of Political Science and Law.
* ZHANG Yonghe ( 张永和 ), Executive Director of Human Rights Research Institute, Southwest University of Political Science and Law.
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