In-depth Understanding of Classic Marxist Human Rights Theory
December 03,2018   By:CSHRS
In-depth Understanding of Classic Marxist Human Rights Theory
XIAN Kailin*
Abstract: The Marxist human rights theory is embodied in several important works by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. The key point to understand Marxist human rights theory is to read the texts of classic works of Marx. Only in this way can we grasp the essence of the theory more clearly and internalize it as genuine belief and emotional identity. This theoretical guide should be implemented in concrete ac-tions through concerns and answers to practical questions, in order to highlight the era value of the classic Marxist human rights theory.
Keywords: Marxism     human rights     classic theory
May 5, 2018, marked the 200th anniversary of the birth of Karl Marx who is recognized by many as the greatest thinker of the millennium. And as Chinese President Xi Jinping pointed out, “The most valuable spiritual wealth that Marx has left for the world is the scientific theory of Marxism named after him. The theory, like sunshine at daybreak, has illuminated the path of mankind’s pursuit of historical rules and self-revolution.” He said that “CPC members should make a habit of reading Marxist theories and understanding the principles behind them, and regard this as a kind of spiritual pursuit. We should use the Marxist classics to cultivate righteousness, refine our thinking, improve our levels of understanding and guide our practice.” And that, “In the new era, Chinese Communists still need to learn from Marx and absorb scientific wisdom and theoretical power from learning and practicing Marxism.”1 Today, in advancing the sinicization of Marxist human rights theory, savoring the great wisdom of classic Marxist human rights theory is of phenomenal theoretical significance and practical value for deepening our study and understanding of the scientific connotations of human rights theories in Xi Jinping’s thought on socialism with Chinese characteristics for a new era and promoting the development of the human rights cause in China in a new era.
Ⅰ. Reading the Marxist Classics: Mastering the Original Text of Classic Marxist Human Rights Theory
Classic Marxist human rights theory is the foundation and cornerstone for our understanding and observing of human rights. It is important to learn and command the content and methods of human rights theories in different historical periods all around the world and it is important to understand classic Marxist human rights theory as it is of lasting effect. It is like a conversation with a wise old man: although it is difficult and time consuming, you will be wiser afterward.
Like the entire ideological and theoretical system, classic Marxist human rights theory also experienced a process of continuous development. Looking at the human rights thinking of Marx and Engels at different stages can help us not only clarify the evolution of their human rights theory but also help us better understand its far-reaching significance.
A. Rheinische Zeitung period: radical human rights concept and revolutionary democracy with the tendency of objective idealism
During this period, the understanding of Marx on human rights still remained at the level of the traditional naturalistic human rights theory. It was mainly based on the bourgeois theories of freedom, democracy and human rights. There were still certain illusions in the recognition of the state and law so the understanding of human rights had not yet departed from the defects of the bourgeois human rights theories. This was inseparable from his revolutionary democracy standpoint and tendency for objective idealism. First, he stressed that “Freedom is the nature of all spiritual existence of a race”.2 In other words, freedom is the common pursuit of humans. Anyone, regardless of their class and interests, pursues freedom and equality. Thus, freedom is an inherent right of man. Second, he was against feudal privilege and strove to promote equal civil rights. “Citizens don’t recognize rights in any form of privilege.”3 The Act of Forest Theft passed by the Rhine Provincial Council based on the hierarchical system sacrificed the legitimate rights and interests of the majority of farmers for the possession of saplings by men of property. Third, he emphasized the status and role of the state and the law in safeguarding the human rights of citizens and the leading position of a rational state transcending class and the rule of law for safeguarding the rights and inter-ests of citizens. “It is considered that a state is a huge institution in which freedom of law, ethics and politics should be realized.”4 Fourth, he called for a free press which reflected the self-confidence of the people. Marx violently criticized the Prussian Censorship Instruction and enthusiastically praised freedom of publication. “Freedom of publication is the insight of the spirit of the people, the embodiment of the people’s self-confidence, and the vocal bond that connects individuals to the country and the whole world.”5 In short, the human rights theory of Marx in Rheinische Zeitung Period shows the following feature: He resorted to the state and the law to oppose extreme personal benefit, the human desire for freedom to oppose the dictatorial system and tyrannical rule of Prussia, the natural rationality of people to oppose the religious state and equal civil rights to oppose all feudal privilege. On the one hand, these features fully demonstrate his political tendency of radical democracy reflected in his strong aversion to the Prussian dictatorship, his spirit of uncompromising resistance and his deep sympathy and responsibility to the poor at that time. On the other hand, they show in many places the profound influence of an idealistic view of human nature and human rights and the “theory of natural rights” in Western traditional political thought.
B. Yearbook of Germany and France period: self-reflection and conscious transformation on understanding of human rights theory
After a period of reflection there was conscious transformation of his understanding of human rights theory. First, his belief in the upholding of human rights based on natural rationality and prior experience was transformed with the recognition of the specific right to behavior within the social reality. Marx pointed out that there was no universally absolute rationality in real life. It was the real social essence of humans that decided the real pursuit of human rights. Thus people with specific social essence are always “the essence of all social organization”6. Second, safeguarding human rights by the rationality of the state was transformed into the denial of the state as the medium for human rights. “Morality is not an issue of the state and the state shows no morality.”7 The social essence decided by individual private ownership conformed with the essence of private ownership of the state. Therefore, the state could not guarantee the equality between people nor universal human rights. On the contrary, the state became the entity to condone the particularity and inequality of private rights. A capitalist state could therefore not be the means to safeguard human rights. Third, the advocacy for social reform was transformed into thorough social revolution in terms of the method to promote and safeguard human rights. During Rheinische Zeitung period, Marx hoped to fight for the human rights of the working class through such social reform measures as improvement of the people’s rationality and reform of the Prussian religious states. By the time of the Yearbook of Germany and France, his thinking had evolved further and he called for a fight for real human rights through the pursuit of a thorough social revolution.
C. German Ideology and the Communist Manifesto period: establishment of scientific human rights theory
This was reflected in two aspects in the German Ideology and The Communist Manifesto Period. First, the class nature of human rights in capitalist society was profoundly revealed from the perspective of class analysis. “Because such a collective is the alliance of one class against the other, it is not only completely illusory but also a new shackle to the subordinate class.”8 Second, such questions as to what the real human rights are and how to realize these real human rights was answered in a scientific way from the height of the historical mission of the proletariat. Marx and Engels pointed out, “the existing productivity and social relations should be changed in order to emancipate the oppressed classes.”9 In order to gain equality and free human rights, the proletariat should change the irrational ownership and class relations through revolution to emancipate themselves from the inequality of possession after completely overthrowing the state system of private ownership. “Without anything of their own for protection, the proletarians should destroy everything that has protected and safeguarded private property so far.”10 Only through establishment of a communist society based on public ownership after eradicating class and private ownership, can human rights be fully realized in the society. At that time, “humans will finally become the master of themselves in society.”11 “In place of the old bourgeois society, in which various classes exist and classes oppose each other, it will be such a consortium, in which the free development of each individual is the condition for the free development of all.”12
D. Das Kapital period: deepening and further innovation of human rights theory
In the process of writing Das Kapital, Marx and Engels thoroughly criticized the hypocrisy of capitalist human rights, revealed the organic connection between bourgeois human rights and the capitalist mode of production and illustrated that the capitalist commodity economy and the mode of production dominating the economy would inevitably require the legislative regulation beneficial to the bourgeoisie in terms of human rights and freedom through analysis of the capitalist economic phenomenon and laws. It symbolized the deepening and innovation of brand new human rights theories which was reflected in the following aspects. First, the production of goods should not be separated from capital, while the inherent attributes of capital require formal equality and freedom to conceal the inequality of capitalist human rights in essence. Not only does the possession and transformation of capital require freedom, the formal and material transformation in the process of capital circulation requires more freedom. Therefore, it is necessary for capital to break all restrictions on its free movement, “The boundary broken by capital is the restriction on its movement, development and realization.”13 “The primary human right of capital is to exploit labor forces equally.”14 Second, it is inevitable for currency as the universal equivalent of exchange value to request for elimination of the natural difference of all commodities as well as the social difference of the owners of the commodity and thus to realize the equality of all economic factors in front of the currency in the society. The theory on freedom and equality developed in the process of such exchange value movement is one of the fundamental characteristics of capitalist production relations. Third, it is connected to freedom of currency for the capitalist economic circulation. The freedom and equality between people based on capitalist commodity circulation is also superficial and formalistic. Fourth, a fundamental requirement of the capitalist economy is that labor becomes a commodity. Labor as a commodity is not only the economic result of the social requirements of freedom and human rights but also the economic determinate of freedom and human rights. Marx and Engels pointed out that freedom to work is not the real freedom of workers. When it is departed from the field of commodity exchanges, the only future of workers “would be to let others make their skin sold on the market into leather products”.15
Ⅱ. Internalization into Belief: Turning Classic Marxist Human Rights Theory into Enthusiastic Belief and Emotional Identification

Internalization of belief is the scientific sublimation of inner belief to turn the classic Marxist human rights theory into rational belief and emotional identification. People stand up by their thought. Only when thoughts and theories are internalized into sincere beliefs, can people have lofty and far-reaching ideals and pursuits. The great wisdom of the classic Marxist human rights theory is the compass for the free and comprehensive development of human beings. The internalized rational belief and emotional identification are by no means the blind faith in something or the aimless obsession as emotional catharsis but the process to turn the spiritual essence of classic human rights theories into a lasting pursuit and emotional identification. In the comparative analysis of Western human rights theories and trends of thought, such as the United States, we firmly believe in the theoretical confidence of Marxist human rights theory.
A. The core of the scientific connotation of classic Marxist human rights theory
The core of classic Marxist human rights theory is the theories on “Human Emancipation” and “Free and Comprehensive Development of Humans.” Although Marx and Engels did not produce any work to specifically and systematically discuss human rights, their scientific prediction of “full realization of human rights” in future society is the best and most lofty goal of human rights for human beings so far. In the future, “the free development of every individual is the condition for the free development of all people.”16 Marx called this “association of free and equal producers” as the “humanitarian objective” of the great economic movement in 19th century, or “full realization of human rights”.17 Engels further clarified, “the true freedom and equality equal to communism.” In this sense, Marx made it clear that the proletarian revolution led by the Communist Party “could only resort to human rights”.18 He incisively point-ed out in the introduction to the provisional statute for the International Workingmen’s Association, “It is the responsibility of a person to claim human rights and citizenship not only for himself but also for everyone who fulfills his obligations.”19 A distinctive sign of modern civilized society is the manifestation of free and comprehensive devel-opment of humans by the self-consciousness of free creation as well as the consciousness to enjoy and observe the rights and obligations.
B. Truth of the scientific contents of classic Marxist human rights theory
Its revolutionary criticism in essence is reflected in the analysis, criticism and learning of different Western human rights thought in modern times. According to classic Marxist human rights theory, human rights are specific, historical and hierarchical rather than transcendent of history, time and class; it is the unification of rights and obligations rather than the separation of them; it is the dialectical unity of individual human rights and collective human rights rather than the confrontation of them; and it is free and comprehensive development of the human rather than one-sided development of individual rights. The lofty objective for the full realization of human rights in classic Marxism has laid a solid theoretical foundation for the guidance of human rights values in the Chinese Dream. With an intrinsic connection to the lofty objective of Marxism to fully realize human rights, the guidance of human rights values in the Chinese Dream put forward by Xi Jinping is deeply rooted in Marxist human rights theory.
C. Practicality of classic Marxist human rights theory
The practicality is not a vain thought but a brand new human rights theory based on the critical inheritance of the Western theory of natural rights in modern times by Marx and Engels with the absorption of achievements of excellent human civilization. It is a scientific outlook on human rights based on fighting against exploitation and oppression and the pursuit of national independence, freedom and emancipation by the proletariat and all oppressed nations as well as their exploration of development path suitable to national conditions and the independent safeguarding people’s rights.
D. Eternal value of classic Marxist human rights theory
The classic human rights theory is obviously not a temporary emotional catharsis but of long-lasting ideological value. The creation of Marxist human rights theory is a great change in the history of human rights. Breaking through the narrow vision and monopoly of Western traditional human rights theories, it held up the banner of Marxist human rights theory and greatly enriched and promoted people’s scientific understanding of human rights. Therefore, it not only provides a powerful ideological weapon for the proletariat of the world and the large number of working people in their fighting for legitimate rights and interests but also points out the direction for us to march toward the lofty objective to fully realize human rights.
E. Methodology of classic Marxist human rights theory is more scientific
Before Marx and Engels, thinkers on human rights in the West adopted the superficial and intuitive methods of research with an abstract historical perspective, so they denied the objective reality of the class oppression and confrontation in capitalist society and the class nature of capitalist state as a tool of governance. People merely given the superficial concept of equal and indiscriminate rights, yet they failed to touch the unequal social roots of private ownership. According to the analysis of classic Marxist human rights theory, human rights are put into three parts or three interconnected organic parts, including humans, the relationship of rights between people and the specific contents of rights. Marx and Engels didn’t limit their eyes on the political rights of individuals. They focused on specific persons as the sum of social relations who inevitably reflect the fundamental nature of social relations as well as the coordinated development of different rights between people in reality decided by social relations in the research on human rights theory. With such an analysis, Marx and Engels went beyond the historical limitations of all previous thinkers of human rights to see further, clearer and more precisely. Their specific, historical and scientific analysis of human rights that looked into the social nature of human rights is still of extremely important guiding significance for us to correctly understand and deal with human rights issues at home and abroad today.
F. The objective of classic Marxist human rights theory is even more lofty
Some Western countries such as the United States have always advertised themselves as the “objective and fair” spokesmen of human rights issues with moral superiority. However, due to the fundamental flaws of the capitalist system, the regularity of private ownership, the dependence of people on materials and the political disputes between parties, dominated all human rights, the pursuit of individual rights often becomes rough and soulless pursuit of materialism directly against the collective essence of the wider community. At the moment, in addition to individuals, the specific subject of rights loses the subjectivity of all people during the universal, equal and just pursuit of human rights because of the alienation of labor and capital. Besides, the detailed content of rights inevitably loses an “objective and fair” nature in the pursuit of extreme material and private interests, let alone the “moral superiority” of true human rights. In modern times, especially in the contemporary era, the bloody history and reality in which a large number of humanitarian disasters created by Western countries under the banner to safeguard human rights are the most powerful proof. Marx and Engels dedicated all the theories and great practice in their lives to the cause of human progress and emancipation. It was the lofty pursuit of Marx and Engels in their lives to truly emancipate the proletariat and the working people and realize the people’s rights in fair, free and peaceful way.
Ⅲ. Externalization into Action: Demonstrating the Value of the Times of Classic Marxist Human Rights Theory with Concern on Solution for Practical Problems
The great wisdom of classic Marxist human rights theory is not a dogma but a guide to action. It is not the metaphysical and onlooker of the transcendental problem of real life but it is full of direct confrontation and concern about the real problems of human including, “suffering and hope, pain and pursuit, frustration and dreams. Externalization into action means to show the value of the times of classic Marxist human rights theory in the specific action focusing on the concern and solution for practical problems.
A. Domestically, attention should be paid to the direction of human rights development and practical problems in China
During the application of Marxist human rights theories, attention should be paid directly to the efforts to secure a decisive victory in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects and strive for the great success of socialism with Chinese characteristics for a new era, to the change of principle contradiction to the contradiction between unbalanced and inadequate development and the people’s ever-growing needs for a better life in a new era and to the new situation and problems in human rights at the current stage of social development to solve the problem of “for whom” and finally improve the satisfaction of the people.
At the beginning of reform and opening up, the poverty-stricken population in rural China was 770 million with the poverty incidence at 97.5 percent. Up to now, more than 700 million people have been lifted out of poverty and the poverty incidence has dropped to 4.5 percent. By 2020, China will completely eliminate absolute poverty and more than one billion Chinese will enter a moderately prosperous society in all respects together. It is an unprecedented achievement. Nevertheless, China is still in the primary stage of socialism and a number of contradictions, in development, people’s livelihoods and poverty, among other things, still exist. As for the periodical feature of social development, the structural contradictions of deep-seated social interests are very prominent. Considering these contradictions, the development of human rights should focus on new problems and demands.
First, we should focus on the new demands of people’s human rights for a better life. In the new era of socialism with Chinese characteristics, the principle contradiction of Chinese society has been transformed into the contradiction between unbal-anced and inadequate development and the people’s ever-growing needs for a better life. The needs of the people in a new era have evolved from “material and culture” into “a better life” while “the backward social production” has been transformed into “unbalanced and inadequate development”. Abraham Maslow, the American psychologist, divided the needs of the people into five levels, namely psychological, safety, belonging and love, self-esteem and self-actualization. In fact, they could be covered in three categories based of the nature of the human needs. The first category is material needs, including such needs for survival as warmth, food and reproduction, which are the most fundamental needs for the survival of mankind. The second category is social needs. It is based on the material needs, covering the needs for safety, security and justice. The third level is psychological needs. It refers to the spiritual and cultural needs that result from psychological needs, like values, ethics, morality, national spirit, feelings, ideals, beliefs, artistic aesthetics, respect, self-realization, faith, and so on. In order to meet people’s ever-growing needs for a better life and promote the development of China’s human rights cause, we should focus on economic development and continue to give priority to the right to life and development; we should regard development as the key to the solution of all problems and promote the comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable development of other human rights, including economic, political, cultural, social, ecological and health rights, through safeguarding the right to development. We should pay attention to improvement of the rights to people’s livelihoods and concentrate our efforts on tackling poverty with targeted measures to actually protect the legitimate rights and interests of groups with special needs. We should vigorously promote democracy and the rule of law and guarantee the right of all members of society to participate and develop equally according to the law to meet the new expectations of the people to public security, judicial justice and protection of rights and interests and strive to ensure justice and fairness in every judicial case for the people. We should meet the expectation of the people for a better life and continue to satisfy the diversified and multi-level needs of the people by providing better education, more stable work, more satisfactory incomes, more reliable social security, a higher level of medical care, better living conditions, a more beautiful environment and richer cultural and ethical life.
Second, we should focus on the new need for human rights suitable for building a moderately prosperous society in all respects and a powerful modern country. The objectives in the new era of socialism with Chinese characteristics include building a powerful modern country, realizing common prosperity, achieving the great rejuvenation of the nation and being at the center of the world stage. According to the historical logic for evolution, the method for building a powerful modern country is to secure a decisive victory in building a moderately prosperous society and a powerful modern socialist country in all respects. From now to 2020 is a decisive period for building a moderately prosperous society in all-round way. By the time the Commu-nist Party of China celebrates its centenary, we will have developed our society into a moderately prosperous one with a developed economy, greater democracy, more ad-vanced science and education, thriving culture, more harmonious society, and a better quality of life. The building of a powerful modern socialist country can be realized in two stages. In the first stage from 2020 to 2035, on the basis of building a well-off society in an all-round way, we will fight for another 15 years and basically realize a modern socialist country. At the end of that time, China’s economic and technological strength will be improved significantly and China will be among the forefront of in-novative countries; the rights of the people to participate and to develop as equals will be adequately protected, the rule of law for the country, the government, and society will be basically in place and institutions in all fields will be further improved; social etiquette and civility will be significantly enhanced; and there will be a fundamental improvement in the environment and the goal of building a Beautiful China will be basically attained. In the second stage from 2035 to the middle of the 21st century, we will, on the basis of realizing a modern socialist country, work hard for a further 15 years to develop China into a great modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious, and beautiful. At that time, new heights will be reached in every dimension of material, political, cultural and ethical, social, and ecological advancement; china will become a global leader in terms of composite national strength and international influence; common prosperity for everyone will be basically achieved; the Chinese people will enjoy happier, safer, and healthier lives; and the Chinese nation will become a proud and active member of the community of nations.
B. Internationally, attention should be paid to the new needs of human rights in the current trend of economic globalization
Peace, development and human rights are the three major goals of the UN Millennium Development Goals and the new needs of human rights in the current trend of economic globalization. Facing the major historical opportunities and severe practical challenges in the current economic globalization, General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee Xi Jinping conforms to the historical trend for peaceful development of the era of globalization and advocates and implements “a community with a shared future for human beings” which is in line with the people’s interests of different countries to promote common development and common prosperity in mutually beneficial cooperation to provide an extensive and inclusive platform for cooperation with countries participating in the Belt and Road Initiative, so as to build roads of friendship that promote understanding and trust and enhance all-round communication and create a solid guarantee for the peaceful development of the world. In the contemporary era, humankind has reached an age of great progress, great transformation and profound changes. In this increasingly multi-polar, economically globalized, digitized and culturally diversified world, the trend toward peace and development has become ever stronger. Never have we seen such close interdependence among countries as today, the fervent desire of people of all countries in the world is for a better life, and never have we had so diverse means to prevail over difficulties. Meanwhile, we find ourselves in a world fraught with challenges. Global growth requires new drivers, development needs to be more inclusive and balanced, and the gap between the rich and the poor needs to be narrowed. Hotspots in some regions are causing instability and terrorism is rampant. Peace, development, governance and human rights deficits pose a daunting challenge to mankind. For a long time, the Cold War mentality of the United States’ hegemony has seriously affected the security of countries. Some countries have tried to act as world’s police and interfered in the internal affairs of other countries and promoted their values and political governance mode with force, which has b caused turmoil and wars leading to humanitarian disasters. Especially in recent years, right-wing extremists have re-emerged on a global scale and come to the fore with concepts such as “Brexit” “America First” and the “Revival of Japanese Militarism” which has not only caused division in the United States, Europe and Japan but also posed serious threats and challenges to the peace, safety, development and human rights in the world. Chinese President Xi Jinping has stressed, “We need to keep pace with the changing circumstances and evolving times. One cannot live in the 21st century with the outdated thinking of the Cold War and a zero-sum mentality.”20 Through advocating the new forms of global governance in mutually beneficial cooperation, China strives to break through the stereotype mindset of the “zero-sum mentality”, change the path of “national power leading to hegemony” and oppose and suppress hegemonism in different forms to better realize the common, open, innovative and interactive development, in which every country can be the participator, contributor and beneficiary of global development and the people in the world can enjoy the life dignity, development fruits and security guarantee.
Facing the major historical opportunities and severe practical challenges, General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee Xi Jinping has creatively proposed the new ideas such as a community with a shared future for human beings, the Belt and Road Initiative and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank that embody great wisdom and connect the past, present and future on the basis of Marxist thought such as. The “Chinese Wisdom” and “Chinese Approach” embodied in measures such as a community with a shared future for human beings, the Belt and Road Initiative and the AIIB show the new essence and features of the human rights civilization. It opens up an important path for the peaceful rise of China to become a powerful country and has far-reaching strategic significance for China’s development and prosperity. More important, it conforms to the trend of globalization, adapts to the general trend of the era for peaceful development, and conforms to the interests of the people of all countries. It is a road of cooperation and win-win for promoting common development and achieving common prosperity, and provides an inclusive and cooperative platform for countries along the Belt and Road routes as well as the world. The Belt and Road Initiative is the road to peace and friendship that enhances understanding of trust and strengthens all-round exchanges, and has created a solid guarantee for global peace and development.
The efforts to seek development in cooperation and promote human rights with development undoubtedly demonstrate the values of the times of the great wisdom of Xin Jinping’s thought on socialism with Chinese characteristics for a new era.
All in all, history and reality have proven and will continue to prove that the great wisdom of classic Marxism human rights theory is the unity of “truth and morality.” It is this powerful great wisdom that leads and encourages the human rights civilization to keep marching towards higher goals of human rights.
* Xian Kailin ( 鲜开林 ), executive director of the Center for Human Rights Research and Education, Dongbei University of Finance and Economics. This paper is a periodical achievement of “Research on Siniciza-tion of Marxist Human Rights Theory” as a branch project of “Research on Several Major basic Theories of Human Rights Issues” (project No.:2016MZd009) which is a major project of social science of the country and a major research project for 2016 of the project on Marxism theory research and construction of the CpC Central Committee.
1. Xi Jinping, “Speech on the Conference to Mark the 200th Anniversary of the birth of Karl Marx,” People’s Daily, May 5, 2018.
2. Collected Works of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, vol. I (beijing: people’s publishing House, 1972), 67.
3. Ibid., 52.
4. Ibid., 129.
5. Ibid., 74.
6. Ibid., 293.
7. Ibid., 380.
8. Ibid., 82.
9. Selected Works of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, vol. I (beijing: people’s publishing House, 1995), 160.
10. Ibid., 477.
11. Selected Works of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, vol. III (beijing: people’s publishing House, 1995), 443.
12. Selected Works of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, vol. I (beijing: people’s publishing House, 1995), 273.
13. Collected Works of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, vol. 46 (Second Half) (beijing: people’s publishing House, 1972), 158.
14. Collected Works of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, vol. 23 (beijing: people’s publishing House, 1972), 324.
15. Ibid., 200.
16. Selected Works of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, vol. I (beijing: people’s publishing House, 1995), 273.
17. Ibid.
18. Ibid.
19. Collected Works of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, vol. 21 (beijing: people’s publishing House, 2003), 17.
20. Xi Jinping, “Speech at the Fourth Conference on Interaction and Confidence building Measures in Asia,” People’s Daily, May 21, 2014.
(Translated by HU Liang)
Chinese Dictionary:


For the latest news and analysis from our

reporters and editors:Staff Twitter List>>