Home > PUBLICATIONS & RESOURCES > JOURNAL >

Mutual Promotion between the Chinese Dream and the Human Rights Protection in China
August 25,2021   By:CSHRS
Mutual Promotion between the Chinese Dream and  the Human Rights Protection in China
 
Research Group of the Human Rights Research Center, Party School of the CPC Central Committee*
 
Abstract: The Chinese Dream is not only the dream of rejuvenation  of the Chinese nation, but also the dream of human rights of the Chinese  people. To accurately understand the shared root and origin of the Chinese Dream and the protection of human rights in China, we must  understand that the Chinese Dream provides new strategic guidance for  the protection of human rights in China, and the protection of human  rights in China is an important measure to promote the realization of the  Chinese Dream. To realize the Chinese Dream in the new era, China’s  human rights protection must always be people-centered, and adhere to  the resolution of the main social contradictions in the new era. on the  basis of raising the awareness of the whole Party and society to respect  and protect human rights, we should remove obstacles and barriers  to human rights protection and promote the building of a community  with a shared future for human beings. At the same time, the protection  of human rights in China in the new era must be guided by Xi Jinping  Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a new Era. We must adhere to the path of human rights development with Chinese characteristics, and study and solve various practical problems of human rights protection in China in the course of upholding integrity and innovation, so as to promote the realization of the Chinese Dream. Upholding the leadership of the Communist Party of China is the fundamental guarantee for realizing the Chinese Dream and protecting human rights in China? We must unswervingly follow the CPC’s lead and open up a new stage in the development of China’s human rights cause in the new era on the great journey to the Chinese Dream.
 
Keywords: The Chinese Dream     human rights protection in China     shared root and origin     mutual promotion
 
Since socialism with Chinese characteristics entered a new era, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China Central Committee Xi Jinping has emphasized that it is our historic mission to realize the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation. This represents a research topic of great historical and practical significance for the development of the human rights cause in China in the new era, especially the protection of human rights. We should bear in mind the overall situation of national rejuvenation, apply the Marxist standpoint, viewpoint and method, deeply analyze the relationship between the Chinese Dream and the protection of human rights in China, and then clarify the new requirements for the protection of human rights in China in the new era of realizing the Chinese Dream, and promote the realization of the Chinese Dream with the development of the cause of human rights in China in the new era.
 
I. The Overall Situation of the Great Rejuvenation of the Chinese Nation and the Protection of Human Rights in China
 
Armed with dialectical materialism and historical materialism, Chinese Communists know deeply that in adhering to seeking truth from facts, the most important thing is to grasp the overall situation. In advancing the cause of human rights in China, we cannot afford to ignore the overall situation and just talk the talk when it comes to human rights protection.
 
Today, the world is undergoing major changes unseen in a century. At the same time, the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation has entered a crucial period. These are the two major situations we are facing today, both at home and abroad. The great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation in the midst of profound changes unseen in a century is a reality that we must take into account when pushing forward the cause of human rights in China.
 
The great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation in the midst of profound changes unseen in a century has provided a rare opportunity for the development of China’s human rights cause, especially the protection of human rights. We have noted that “major changes unseen in a century” and “a crucial period of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation” are occurring at the same time, creating an unprecedented reality in which the two overall situations at home and abroad are interconnected and reinforcing each other. Since the transition from free competition capitalism to monopoly capitalism, especially since the end of World War II, the Western world led by the United States, although it experienced some twists and turns, soared all the way until it won the Cold War. But just as the West began to ecstatically declare the end of history, the world changed dramatically. After a series of major historical events, such as the European integration and the launch of the euro, the “9/11” event, the subprime mortgage crisis and the international financial crisis, the replacement of the G7 by the G20, the Trump “withdrawal from international organizations”, and the COVID-19 pandemic, the Western world is declining step by step. At the same time, since the beginning of the 21st century, the collective rise of a number of emerging  markets and developing countries has become an irreversible trend of the times. In  particular, the peaceful rise of China, the strong rise of Russia and the coordinated development of the “Belt and Road” countries have had a significant impact on the  change in the world pattern. Although Western developed countries still enjoy great  economic advantages, and in science and technology, and China and other emerging  markets and developing countries are still relatively backward, the general trend of the  changing world pattern is “the decline of the West and the rise of the East.” Obviously,  this trend and the other general trends it implies are more and more conducive to  the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, as well as to China’s exploration of a  human rights development path with its own characteristics and for the protection of  human rights in China. A typical example is, in the face of the sudden outbreak of the  novel coronavirus, China put people and life first, and it wrote a great epic in its fight  against the virus. Another great example is China’s decisive victory in the final battle  against poverty. “By current standards, nearly 100 million rural residents have been  lifted out of poverty, and all 832 poor counties have been lifted out of poverty.”1 This is an achievement that has been praised by people around the world.
 
The great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation in the midst of unprecedented changes in a century has also brought many severe challenges to the development of China’s human rights cause, especially the protection of human rights. Today, we are closer than at any time in history to realizing the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation. At the same time, we are soberly aware that “the last leg of a journey marks the halfway point.” The last leg is of vital importance and there must be no easing up in the efforts to realize this goal, lest things go wrong. Since China became the world’s second largest economy, especially since its economic aggregate surpassed that of the United States by 60% and 70%, the voices of “decoupling”, “trade war”, “technological war” and “financial war” against China, as well as attempts to contain China’s development, have become increasingly loud in the West, especially the United States. Such challenges are equally acute on the issue of human rights. In recent years, there have been more and more voices and tactics of using “human rights” to suppress China on issues related to Hong Kong, Xinjiang and Tibet.
 
When we study the Chinese Dream and the protection of human rights in China, we should not only see that the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation in the great changes has provided a rare opportunity for the protection of human rights in China, but also see that, today and in the future, our protection of human rights is facing severe challenges. The best way to seize the opportunities and respond to the challenges is to do China’s own things well. In the historical process of realizing the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, we should constantly promote the development of human rights cause in China and improve the level of human rights protection in China. At the same time, we should strive for a greater say in the international human rights discourse. The fact that human rights are being protected by “fighting against COVID-19” and “lifting people out of poverty” should be known so the world can see who is truly protecting the human rights of their own people, and to demonstrate the superiority of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics and the path of human rights with Chinese characteristics.
 
II. The Chinese Dream and the protection of human rights in China  enjoy the Same Root and Origin
 
The Chinese Dream is a dream of national rejuvenation, and the happiness  and human rights for the Chinese people. The pursuit of the Chinese Dream and  the protection of human rights in China not only occur under the same historical  conditions in China, but also have an internal logical connection. From the historical  development of the Chinese Dream and the protection of human rights in China, the  Chinese people’s attention to “the protection of human rights” as a historical pursuit  is equivalent to the “May 4th New Culture Movement” at the new starting point of the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. Regarding the internal logic connecting the Chinese Dream and the protection of human rights in China, both of them have been the goals that the Chinese people and nation have unswervingly pursued since modern times. The Chinese Dream is about national prosperity, national rejuvenation and people’s happiness. In the field of human rights, it is about respecting and protecting human rights. Respecting and protecting human rights is a core value of the Chinese Dream. From the perspective of the Chinese Dream and the historical practice of human rights protection, respecting and protecting human rights is not only the internal requirement but also the necessary condition for realizing the Chinese Dream. And realizing the Chinese Dream will usher in a new era of promoting human rights protection in China. The Chinese Dream and human rights protection share the same value pursuit, ultimate goal and realization approach.
 
A. The Chinese Dream and the protection of human rights in China are similar in many ways
 
The Chinese Dream shares the same value pursuit with human rights protection in China. Both the Chinese Dream and the protection of human rights in China take respecting and protecting human rights as the fundamental value pursuit. The essence of realizing the Chinese Dream is to realize the human rights of the Chinese nation.
 
The Chinese nation is a collection of people who share the same genes of the Chinese civilization. The human rights of the Chinese nation include the national dignity that the Chinese nation should enjoy in the international community, such as the rights to independence, freedom, democracy, unity and prosperity. The Chinese Dream seeks national prosperity, national rejuvenation and people’s happiness. The realization of human rights for the Chinese nation is an integral component of the Chinese Dream. To realize the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, the entire nation must strive to safeguard its own dignity and to realize the human rights of all Chinese people. To realize the “two centenary goals” incorporated in the Chinese Dream, we need to enable our people to live a better life and reap tangible happiness. The most fundamental demonstration of people’s happiness is the respect and protection of every basic human right, including the right to life, the right to health, the right to property, the right to citizenship, political rights, the right to labor, the right to social security, the right to culture, the right to environment and so on. To realize the Chinese Dream, we must respect and protect human rights as the fundamental value pursuit. Only by adhering to this value pursuit can we continuously bring benefits to the people. Respecting and safeguarding human rights is also the fundamental value of human rights protection in China. To achieve the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation under the current conditions, we must fully respect and protect human rights and realize, safeguard and develop the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people. Only in this way can we win the respect and praise of other nations and make others want to learn from China.
 
Human rights protection in China shares the same ultimate goal with the Chinese Dream. The ultimate goal of the two is to realize the comprehensive and free development of the people. “To realize the comprehensive and free development of human beings” is the essential regulation of socialism and communism. Although the Chinese Dream will be realized earlier than socialism, let alone communism, the Dream has to achieve the right of people to comprehensive and free development through the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, so that the fruits of development can be shared by all the people in a more equitable way. The Chinese Dream takes the people’s happiness as the goal and destination of development, meets the actual needs of the people and promotes the quality development of the people, and ensures that development is for the people, by the people, and the fruits of development are shared by the people. The ultimate value pursuit is to realize the comprehensive and free development of everyone. It can be said that the Chinese Dream and the protection of human rights in China are the latest interpretation, inheritance and development of Marxist theory about the comprehensive and free development of human beings. China is a socialist country under a people’s democratic dictatorship. The people are the masters of the nation and the masters of the country, society and their own destiny. This has laid a solid foundation for the comprehensive and free development of the people. At the same time, after decades of development, China’s comprehensive national strength has been continuously enhanced, which has laid the material foundation for the comprehensive and free development of people. China also pays attention to the cultural building of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and has realized the great development and prosperity of socialist culture, which has laid the spiritual foundation for the comprehensive and free development of people. Education, employment, medical care and many other things are included in the social construction to improve and ensure people’s livelihoods, providing social security for people’s all-round development. In order to promote the harmonious development between man and nature, China has put forward the concept of green development. China emphasizes that man and nature have a relationship of coexistence. We must respect the laws of nature, adhere to conservation of resources and environmental protection, adhere to sustainable development, and firmly follow the path of civilized development characterized by increased production, a well-off life and a sound ecological environment. We seek to promote ecological progress under socialism with Chinese characteristics, and to provide important guarantees for the comprehensive and free development of people. 
 
The Chinese Dream is realized in the same way as the protection of human rights in China. The way to realize the Chinese Dream and to protect human rights in China is to stick to the leadership of the Communist Party of China, and to follow the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics. The path of development is determined by the basic national conditions of a country. To realize the Chinese Dream, we must keep to the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics. To promote the protection of human rights in China, we should combine the principle of the universality of human rights with China’s reality, and follow a path of human rights development that suits China’s national conditions. Practice has proven that, in light of China’s national conditions, we must adhere to the people-centered concept of human rights protection, take the rights to life and development as the primary basic human rights, coordinate efforts to promote economic, political, cultural, social and ecological progress for all the people, safeguard social fairness and justice, and promote the comprehensive and free development of the people. This is also the greatest wish and aspiration of the Chinese people. In realizing the Chinese Dream and protecting human rights, China should adhere to the path of human rights development with Chinese characteristics and improve the level of human rights protection and development step by step. China’s respect and protection of human rights is not only an effort to pursue the common ideal of human rights, but also a great enrichment of the connotation of this common ideal and the way to achieve it.
 
B. The Chinese Dream provides new strategic guidance for human rights protection in China
 
The Chinese Dream has charted the course for the protection of human rights in China. To realize the Chinese Dream, we need to ensure that people have better education, more stable jobs, higher incomes, more reliable social security, better medical services, more comfortable housing conditions and a more beautiful environment to enjoy. Children need to grow up better, work better, and live better, and let everyone develop themselves and contribute to society. Therefore, the Chinese Dream embodies and vividly reflects the goals and purposes of China’s human rights cause. It has charted the course for the protection of human rights in China, injected new meaning into it, presented a new vision, and provided a source of thought and driving force behind it. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, under the guidance  of the Chinese Dream and through the unremitting efforts of the whole Party and the  whole people, China has made great progress in the cause of human rights. People’s  living standards have continued to improve. The government has formulated and  implemented a series of major policies and measures to stabilize growth, promote  reform, make structural adjustments and improve people’s lives. Income, employment,  housing, medical care, education, and public cultural services for both urban and rural  residents have continued to improve. The people’s rights to life and development, as  well as their economic, social and cultural rights are better protected. People enjoy  more democratic rights and freedoms in accordance with the law. The legal protection  of human rights has been further improved, and the basic rights of the people are  better protected by the law. State investment in the economic and social development of ethnic minorities has continued to increase, and all-round progress has been made in the protection of human rights of ethnic minorities. The protection system for the rights of women, children, the elderly and persons with disabilities has been improved. Basic public services for persons with disabilities have been further improved, so have the conditions for them to participate in social life on an equal footing. Human rights education, training and research have achieved remarkable results. New progress has been made in international exchanges and cooperation on human rights. All these achievements in the protection of human rights in China are inseparable from the strategic guidance of the Chinese Dream.
 
The Chinese Dream has further enriched the connotations of human rights protection in China. In the final analysis, the Chinese Dream is a dream of the people. Therefore, we must rely closely on the people to realize the Chinese Dream, and continue to bring benefits to the people. On the one hand, the Chinese Dream emphasizes that everyone should have the opportunity to develop themselves and contribute to society, and that everyone should have the opportunity to excel in life and make their dreams come true. The Chinese Dream guarantees that everyone has the right to equal participation and development. Its essence is to realize the comprehensive and free development of people. On the other hand, it emphasizes that only when everyone works hard for our beautiful dream can we build a mighty force to realize the Chinese Dream. The common aspiration and efforts of the Chinese people to realize the Chinese Dream will surely bring about progress in the cause of human rights in China, provide positive energy and make new contributions to the development of the world’s human rights cause. This deeply reveals that the Chinese Dream is the organic unity of the dream of the country, the nation and the individuals. This “greatest common divisor” is consistent with individual rights and individual pursuits, which emphasizes the responsibility of everyone to realize the Chinese Dream. The Chinese Dream systematically summarizes the various rights expectations of the Chinese people, elevates the realization and protection of the people’s rights to the height of realizing the CPC’s goals and realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, and profoundly reveals the high consistency between the realization of the Chinese Dream and the protection and realization of people’s rights. Respecting and protecting human rights is inseparable from the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation. The Chinese Dream is, in a certain sense, the dream of human rights of the Chinese people. The Chinese Dream enriches and deepens the connotation of human rights protection in China. It contains the social vision of the human rights concept, human rights appeal and human rights values, provides new value standards and ideological nutrition for the construction of Chinese human rights discourse system, and brings China’s understanding of value and concept of human rights to a new height and realm.
 
The Chinese Dream is a powerful driving force for the protection of human rights in China. The Chinese Dream connects the cause of human rights in China with the historical pursuit of the Chinese nation. It promotes the cause of human rights with the deepest patriotism in the hearts of the Chinese people, and provides the spiritual strength for the CPC and the Chinese people to respect, protect and safeguard human rights for lasting development. Since the launch of reform and opening up, the CPC and the Chinese people have been able to reach consensus on “respecting and protecting human rights” because of “one pillar and two foundations”. The “one pillar” is that China aims to achieve modernization through reform and opening up. The “two foundations” are, first, the lessons from history have made us realize the paramount importance of “respecting and safeguarding human rights”. And the second is that the experience of the world has made us realize that only by “respecting and protecting human rights” can we maximize the enthusiasm of the majority of the people to realize the socialist modernization of the country. At the beginning of the new era of socialism with Chinese characteristics, General Secretary Xi Jinping called for striving to realize the Chinese Dream of great national rejuvenation, directly linking the socialist modernization development strategy determined by the CPC with the historical pursuit of the Chinese nation, and encouraging the Chinese people to realize the modernization development strategy proposed by the CPC with the spirit of patriotism of national rejuvenation. In this way, not only has the greatest “common divisor” and “concentric circle” been formed among the whole Party and the people, but also the greatest centripetal force and cohesion have been formed, making it a powerful driving force for the whole Party and the people of the country to work with one heart and one mind in building a great modern socialist country. For the cause of human rights in China, it has built on the one pillar and two foundations and found “patriotism” to be a powerful spiritual force1 for the CPC and the Chinese people to respect and protect human rights.
 
C. The protection of human rights in China is an important measure for realizing the Chinese Dream
 
The protection of human rights in China is the basic premise and inherent requirement for realizing the Chinese Dream. The fundamental purpose of the Communist Party of China is to serve the people wholeheartedly, and putting people first is the highest standard for all the activities of the Party. In the final analysis, the Chinese Dream is the dream of the Chinese people. We must continue to bring benefits to the people, and at the same time, we must rely on them to realize the Chinese Dream. For the Party and the government, strengthening the protection of human rights means listening to the people’s voice and responding to their expectations whenever and wherever possible, and ensuring the people’s rights to equal participation and development.
 
The protection of human rights in China is an important measure of the realization of the Chinese Dream. The most direct manifestation of the realization of human rights protection in China is the level of people’s happiness, which is an important value standard to measure the Chinese Dream. The Chinese Dream, in the final analysis, is to enable people to live a life of greater dignity, value, happiness and fulfillment. The real experience of the Chinese Dream comes from the increase of wealth and income, the improvement of living quality and standards, the increasing size of housing and so on, and also from the pursuit of a stable and healthy lifestyle. 
 
The Communist Party of China adheres to the principle of putting the people first and putting the people at the center. It uses its political power for the people, cares for the people, and brings benefits to the people. Adhering to this ruling value of putting the people first, the Party and the government will take the happiness of the people as the ultimate standard to test their governance ability. How can we, on the basis of continuous economic and social development, enable the Chinese people live a happier and more dignified life and make our society more just and harmonious? This requires us to clarify that the goal of our efforts is to safeguard and develop human rights. To realize people’s happiness is the ultimate goal of national and social development, and also the highest value yardstick to test whether the Chinese Dream is finally realized.
 
The protection of human rights in China will help enhance the influence of the Chinese Dream in the world. After more than 40 years of reform and opening up, China has gradually become a world economic power. However, after entering the 21st century, China is still facing many new challenges, among which, how to become  a world power with political, social and cultural influence on the basis of economic  power is a problem that must be dealt with. The Chinese Dream is also the general  expression of this requirement. A “Dream” is not only based on reality, but also  beyond reality. A “dream” is not only the display of hope, but also embodies a value  demand. The Chinese Dream is not only the dream of everyone in China, but also the  collective dream of the Chinese nation. The Chinese Dream not only expresses the  value concerns and expectations of the Chinese people, but also exerts an important  influence on the development process of the world. This makes the interpretation of  the Chinese Dream to enhance the “soft power” of China’s international influence  become an important subject of common concern in the theoretical and practical  circles at present. China has fully absorbed the theoretical and practical achievements  of other countries in human rights protection, summarized its experience in human  rights protection, and translated the successful practice of China’s social development  into successful experience in human rights protection, thus providing significant  enlightenment for the solution of the difficult problems faced by the world in human  rights protection. The continuous improvement of human rights protection in China  will surely help the Chinese Dream to have a wider international impact.
 
III. Upholding the Leadership of the Communist Party of China is the Fundamental Guarantee for Realizing the Chinese Dream and Protecting Human Rights in China
 
Since modern times, due to the invasion of foreign powers and the decay of the ruling class, the Chinese nation’s sovereignty has been violated and its national dignity trampled on. The Chinese people are more eager than ever for independence, freedom, democracy, unity and prosperity. To realize the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, the entire nation must work hard to restore its own dignity and to realize the human rights of the entire nation. History tells the Chinese people that in the face of internal turmoil and foreign invasion, no political force of any kind can solve China’s problems or safeguard the human rights of the Chinese people. Only the Communist Party of China, which serves the people wholeheartedly, can lead the Chinese people to achieve national independence and liberation. Only the CPC can enable the Chinese people to enjoy human rights. Since its birth, the Communist Party of China, while striving for China’s socialist and communist ideals, has unswervingly shouldered the historic mission of striving for the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation and seeking the happiness of the Chinese people, and has deservingly become the most faithful and reliable leadership for the cause of human rights in China.
 
A. The Communist Party of China always represents the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the Chinese people
 
In their fight to realize, safeguard and develop their own human rights, the Chinese people have always had strong and powerful leadership, which is the CPC that formed in the course of long revolutionary struggle serves the Chinese people wholeheartedly. The Communist Party of China has no special interests of its own other than the fundamental interests of the working class and the people at large. The great victory of the People’s Revolution led by the Communist Party of China achieved national independence and liberation, and enabled the Chinese people to stand up. This was the first step of the CPC’s fight for human rights for all Chinese people. The reform and opening up led by the CPC has made the Chinese people rich, which is the second step in the CPC’s fight for human rights for all Chinese. The Chinese Communists of the new era have led the people to work toward the goal of “getting stronger,” the third step in the CPC’s fight for human rights for all Chinese. To realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation on the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and to uphold and develop socialism with Chinese characteristics in the course of this process, is the basic experience of the CPC leading the Chinese people to realize the Chinese Dream of great national rejuvenation. This is also the basic experience for China’s human rights cause to make historic progress in the course of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. Under the leadership of the CPC, the Chinese people have found a unique path to national rejuvenation, which is the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics.
 
B. The CPC is the core of strong leadership for realizing the Chinese Dream
 
The CPC is the pioneer of the Chinese Dream. In its more than 5,000-year history of civilization, the Chinese nation has created a splendid civilization and an advanced culture. However, since modern times, especially after 1840, the Chinese nation has been confronted with internal and external troubles and faced the danger of national annihilation. In this context, the realization of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation has become the dream of countless Chinese people. Before the birth of the Communist Party of China, countless people with lofty ideals made various explorations and efforts to realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, some of which promoted the progress of Chinese society to a certain extent, but they failed to change the nature of China’s semi-colonial and semi-feudal society. Since its founding in 1921, the CPC has shouldered the historic mission of transforming Chinese society. In the long-lasting revolution and fight against imperialist forces, the CPC found the way to save the nation from subjugation and annihilation. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the socialist system was established in China through socialist transformation, which laid a solid institutional foundation for all the progress and development of Chinese society. Through many difficulties and obstacles, several generations of Chinese Communists have combined Marxism and Chinese revolutionary practice with China’s national conditions, created a system of theories of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and solved major problems such as the nature of China’s revolutionary path. Thanks to this path, theory, system and cultural confidence, China has scored remarkable achievements in social and economic development, and its productive forces, economic and technological strength, and overall national strength have reached new heights.
 
Realizing the Chinese Dream is the sacred mission of the CPC. To achieve  national prosperity, national rejuvenation and people’s happiness is the essence and  core of the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. It is also  the unremitting pursuit and historical mission of the Chinese Communists. The report  to the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China points out that since its founding, the CPC has made realizing communism its highest ideal and ultimate goal, and shouldered the historic mission of realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation without turning back. The CPC led the Chinese people in advancing revolution, development and reform, putting an end to the backwardness that plagued China in modern times, including domestic turmoil and foreign invasion, poverty and weakness, and fundamentally changing the future and destiny of the Chinese nation. Today, under the leadership of the CPC, the Chinese people have made remarkable achievements. The great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation shows an unprecedentedly bright future. We are closer than ever before to the dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, and more confident and capable than ever before of realizing this dream. To realize the Chinese Dream, we have a solid foundation in reality and sound conditions for domestic and external development. Under the leadership of the CPC, we have blazed a path of socialism with Chinese characteristics that leads to national rejuvenation, established a system of theories of socialism with Chinese characteristics to guide it, and established a socialist system with Chinese characteristics to ensure its realization. Under the leadership of the CPC, China’s economic aggregate has become the second largest in the world, and the people’s material and cultural lives have become moderately prosperous in all respects. With the increase of China’s overall national strength, China has played a bigger role in international affairs. These achievements show that only by upholding the leadership of the CPC can we complete the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects and modernize China’s governance system and capacity. Only in this way can we truly seize the opportunity and not lose it, forge ahead and not follow the beaten track, so as to ensure that the socialist China is moving forward unceasingly towards the goal of national rejuvenation. Only by always taking the CPC as the core of strong leadership can we formulate strategies and countermeasures to cope with risks and challenges under the guidance of correct theories, respond to numerous new situations, problems and conflicts, and brave the wind and waves to push the great cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics to a new level.
 
The leadership of the CPC is the foundation for pooling the powerful forces to realize the Chinese Dream. The leadership of the CPC is the most essential feature of socialism with Chinese characteristics and the fundamental guarantee for advancing the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. The world is undergoing profound changes, and China’s economic and social development is also faced with various risks and challenges. The CPC must face up to the risks and challenges with unprecedented strategic resolve, earnestly strengthen its self-improvement, and constantly improve its governance and leadership. It must not be afraid of any risks or difficulties, nor be distracted by any noise, and strengthen its confidence in the path, theory, system, and culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics. In the historical process of profound changes in the world, it must always be at the forefront of the times. It must always be the backbone of the Chinese people in the historical process of coping with various risks and tests at home and abroad. It must always be the core of strong leadership in the historical process of upholding and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics. As a Marxist political party, the CPC can remain invincible only by adhering to the principle that it comes from the people, takes root among the people and serves the people. Adhering to the mass line and always maintaining flesh- and-blood ties with the people is an important guarantee for the Party to overcome all kinds of risks and challenges and achieve continuous success in its cause. In the new historical period of national rejuvenation, new missions, new tasks, new environment and new circumstances have put forward new and higher requirements for the CPC’s level and capability of governing the country. In the course of realizing the Chinese Dream, the Communist Party of China has always been connected to the hearts of the people, breathing the same air and sharing the same destiny with them, and has always adhered to the purpose of serving the people wholeheartedly. The CPC will, as always, rely closely on the people, draw from them the inexhaustible driving force for advancing the Chinese cause, unite with and lead the Chinese people in advancing the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and remain the core leadership for realizing the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation.
 
C. Under the leadership of the CPC, the cause of human rights in China has witnessed unprecedented vigorous development
 
Since its founding, the CPC has shouldered the historic mission of fighting for the human rights of all Chinese people, and it has become the most faithful and reliable leadership for the cause of human rights of the Chinese people. Under the CPC leadership, the cause of human rights in China has made unprecedented progress.
 
Respect for and protection of human rights has always been an important governing philosophy of the Party and the government. The founding of New China marked the independence of the Chinese nation and the liberation of the Chinese people, and the Chinese people became the masters of the country and society. Under the CPC leadership, the Chinese people have embarked on a journey pursuing a happy life. In this journey, there have been successes and twists and turns. Since  the introduction of reform and opening up in 1978, the CPC has seriously reflected on its experience and lessons, and gradually established respecting and protecting  human rights as the basic concept of governing and rejuvenating the country. In 1991, China published a white paper titled Human rights in China, which systematically  expounded China’s basic views on the issue of human rights. In 1997, the political report to the 15th National Congress of the Communist Party of China explicitly linked  the rule of the CPC with “respecting and safeguarding human rights” for the first  time, and pointed out that: “Governing by the Communist Party means that it leads  and supports the people in exercising the power of running the country, exercising  democratic elections, decision-making, management and supervision, that it ensures  that the people enjoy extensive rights and freedom in accordance with the law, and that  it respects and protects human rights.” Entering the 21st century, the Communist Party of China has put forward the people-oriented scientific development concept, which is a major change and upgrade of China’s governance philosophy. In 2002, “respecting and protecting human rights” was once again written into the report to the 16th  National Congress of the CPC as an important goal of socialist political civilization  construction. In 2004, the Second Session of the Tenth National People’s Congress  adopted the amendment to the Constitution by a large majority. For the first time, “the  State respects and protects human rights” was written into the Constitution of China,  solemnly proclaiming the political and legal status of respecting and protecting human  rights in China in the way of the fundamental law of the country, and respecting  and protecting human rights became the political philosophy and value goal of the  country. In 2007, “respecting and protecting human rights” was enshrined in the CPC  Constitution for the first time. In 2012, the report to the 18th CPC National Congress  further stated that “human rights should be effectively respected and guaranteed.”  In 2017, the report to the 19th National Congress of the CPC once again stressed  the importance of “strengthening the legal protection of human rights and ensuring  that the people enjoy extensive rights and freedom in accordance with the law.” The  establishment of “respecting and protecting human rights” as the ruling philosophy of  the Party and the country marks that the CPC has reached a new level and realm in its  understanding of the nature and laws of China’s socialist construction. It has played an  extremely important guiding role in the development of China’s human rights cause.
 
The CPC always acts in line with China’s national conditions, while following the trend of world civilization and progress. The cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics, in both depth and breadth, is a human rights cause of unprecedented complexity and difficulty that has never been seen in the world. Such huge system engineering or historical engineering must be guided by systematic theories. The CPC and the Chinese government have deepened their understanding of the concept of human rights with Chinese characteristics by taking into account the trend of world civilization and progress, the rights awareness and needs of the people under the conditions of developing a socialist market economy, and the situation of international dialogue, exchanges, cooperation and fights on human rights. Breakthroughs have been made in revealing the relationship between respecting and protecting human rights and the ruling purposes of the CPC as well as all fields of the construction of socialism with Chinese characteristics and other important theoretical and practical issues. And, a relatively systematic view of human rights with Chinese characteristics has been formed. The basic content of the concept of human rights with Chinese characteristics conforms to the basic requirements of international human rights documents such as the Universal Declaration of Human rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political rights, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural rights. Combining the fine tradition of Chinese civilization,  it is a theoretical summary of the rich experience of the pioneering human rights  practice of the Chinese people, a systematic understanding of the law of human rights  development in China, and an important part of the theoretical system of socialism  with Chinese characteristics. It plays an important guiding role in the development of  human rights practice in China.
 
The CPC has always given top priority to comprehensively promoting the protection of human rights. The CPC and the Chinese government have meticulously planned the development of China’s socialist human rights cause, focusing on key areas in practice, putting legislation first and people’s livelihoods first, strengthening guidance and advancing the cause in an all-round way, thus making great achievements in China’s human rights cause. A legal system for protecting human rights with the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China as the core has basically taken shape. China’s Constitution comprehensively stipulates the basic rights and obligations of its citizens. On the basis of the Constitution, China has strengthened legislation on the protection of human rights, and established protection systems for basic civil rights, political rights, and economic, social and cultural rights. A socialist legal system with Chinese characteristics has basically taken shape, and there are laws to go by in all areas of social life and in all aspects of human rights protection. Great achievements have been made in this regard. The CPC and the Chinese government, proceeding from China’s realities, take economic development as the central task, insist that development is the overriding principle, and that development is the top priority in governing and rejuvenating the country, placing the Chinese people’s rights to life and development in a prominent position. Since 1978, the Chinese people have made two historic leaps from poverty to adequate food and clothing, and from adequate food and clothing to moderate prosperity. More than 800 million people have been lifted out of poverty and the UN Millennium Development Goals have been achieved ahead of schedule. China has made positive contributions to the global cause of poverty reduction. The average life expectancy has increased substantially, reaching the level of moderately developed countries. The cultural and educational levels of the people have been steadily improved. In recent years, China has made great efforts to address the most immediate and practical rights issues of the greatest concern to the people. We continue to improve institutional arrangements for ensuring and improving people’s well-being, vigorously promote employment, promote equal access to basic services, and further improve the subsistence allowance system. As a result, we have effectively improved the people’s rights to life, development and economic, social and cultural rights. We have actively yet prudently carried out reform of the political system, enriched forms of democracy, and constantly protected and expanded citizens’ democratic rights. The system of people’s congresses, the system of political consultation, the system of regional ethnic autonomy, and the system of community- level democracy all embody the broadest possible form of people’s democracy in China, and are the basic form and important guarantee for citizens’ enjoyment of political rights. We have taken further legislative, law-enforcement, judicial and policy measures to strengthen the protection of human rights. The judicial protection of human rights has been further strengthened, and the system of open trials, people’s assessors, defense and death penalty review has been established and improved. The system of judicial assistance, legal aid and lawyers has been improved.
 
China has always paid close attention to human rights education and gradually raised people’s awareness of human rights. The cause of human rights belongs to all citizens and is closely related to the rights and interests of each and every one of us. Faced with the fact that there are huge differences in the international community in the field of human rights, we should strengthen human rights education so that all citizens, especially leading Party and government officials at all levels, will have the awareness to respect and protect human rights, and make clear in their minds what human rights are and how to respect and protect them. Public officials, especially leading cadres of the Party and government at all levels who hold State power, should undertake important responsibilities and obligations in respecting and protecting human rights. Their human rights awareness determines, to a great extent, the development of the cause of human rights in China. We should strengthen human rights education among teenagers. Teenagers are the future of a country and a nation. The cultivation of human rights awareness in the whole society should start from teenagers, which is a basic project of human rights construction. China has set up national human rights education bases in a number of universities, and more and more universities offer courses on human rights law and human rights education. There are more and more human rights research institutions, and various human rights research and exchange activities are becoming more intensive and extensive. In primary and secondary schools, various forms of human rights education have been carried out in accordance with the realities of teenagers. We have actively carried out human rights education for the general public. After years of education and guidance, public officials and the whole society have clearly raised their awareness of respecting and protecting human rights, and a social atmosphere that knows what honors or shames the respecting and protecting of human rights has gradually taken shape. Such planned and purposeful human rights education has played a positive role in promoting the development of China’s human rights cause.
 
China has been actively engaged in human rights dialogues to promote mutual understanding and to jointly advance the international human rights cause. The protection of human rights in China is an open cause. The development of human rights protection in China cannot be separated from the development and progress of the international human rights cause. On the one hand, to develop its human rights cause, China needs to earnestly fulfill its obligations under international human rights treaties and learn from the good practices and experience of other countries in human rights protection. On the other hand, due to the differences in social system, history and culture, some countries have different understandings, views and practices on human rights. This calls for human rights dialogues and exchanges, mutual understanding and joint efforts to promote the healthy development of the international human rights cause. China has been deeply involved in the work of the United Nations on human rights affairs, encouraging the international community to handle human rights issues in a fair, objective and non-selective manner. We have conducted open and candid dialogues and exchanges with other countries, introduced the development of China’s human rights cause, the challenges it faces and the goals of its efforts, and accepted feasible suggestions that are in line with China’s realities. On the basis of equality and mutual respect, China has conducted dialogues and exchanges on human rights with the European Union, the United States, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Germany and Australia respectively, which has promoted mutual understanding and played a positive role in promoting the development of relations with these countries. China has actively carried out exchanges and cooperation on human rights with relevant non-governmental organizations, institutions of higher learning and research institutions. The China Society for Human Rights Studies has played an important and positive role in academic exchanges and cooperation on human rights with other countries. The exchanges and cooperation between Chinese institutions of higher learning and their human rights research institutions and relevant foreign universities and human rights research institutions have become increasingly frequent, which has effectively promoted exchanges and cooperation on human rights with foreign countries.
 
IV. Realizing the Chinese Dream in the New Era has Raised New Requirements for Human Rights Protection in China
 
As President Xi Jinping has pointed out, “the Chinese people are striving to realize the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, which will guarantee the human rights of the Chinese people at a higher level and promote the all-round development of the people.”2 This important statement has profoundly  explained the internal connection between the Chinese people’s expectations for  human rights and the goals of the CPC and the realization of the Chinese Dream of  the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. It reveals the high degree of consistency  between the Chinese Dream and the protection of human rights in China, which  requires us to protect the human rights of the Chinese people at a higher level in the  historical process of realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.
 
A. To adhere to a people-centered philosophy of development and further deepen the understanding of respect for and protection of human rights throughout the Party and society at large
 
The new era of realizing the Chinese Dream will be a new era of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, a new era of socialist China becoming stronger, and, in the final analysis, a new era in which the Chinese people will turn their aspirations for a better life into reality. “With a people-centered approach, we will remain true to our founding aspiration and keep our mission firmly in mind. We will brave the wind and waves and set sail for the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.”3 In the new era, we must more consciously adhere to the concept of people-  centered development and further raise the public’s awareness of respecting and  protecting human rights. If the consensus on human rights protection and the code  of conduct cannot be effectively upheld in social life, it will be impossible to truly  implement the concept of people-centered development, making it impossible  for the Chinese people to enjoy the human rights they deserve, and realize the  great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. In the new era of socialism with Chinese  characteristics, there must be such consciousness.
 
The key to forming a consensus on “human rights protection” in the whole of society is that the Party and the government should first form a conscious awareness of respecting and protecting human rights. As a Marxist political party, the CPC aims to better realize the basic rights granted to the Chinese people by the Constitution and better protect the human rights granted to the Chinese people by the Constitution. The Party and the government should not only write “Serving the People” at the door of their offices, but also adhere to the purpose of “Serving the People” in decision- making and implementation. “Serving the people” inherently contains the principle of human rights protection. Today, “respecting and protecting human rights” has been written into the CPC Constitution and has become a requirement for Party committees at all levels and all CPC members. To realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation is the historic mission of the CPC. And it is the political responsibility of the CPC to respect and protect the human rights of the Chinese people. The Party, the government and their staff, who are responsible to the people, must realize the importance of “respecting and protecting human rights” from the height of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, of building a prosperous, strong, democratic, civilized, harmonious and beautiful modern socialist country, and of realizing the Chinese people’s aspiration for a better life, so as to earnestly take human rights protection as the most basic perspective and requirement for our decision-making, and as the most basic focus, starting point and end point for all the work of the Party and the government.
 
B. To focus on resolving the principal contradiction in society in the new era and further remove obstacles and barriers hindering the protection of human rights
 
In the course of realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new era. The principal contradiction faced by Chinese society has become that between unbalanced and inadequate development and the people’s ever-growing needs for a better life. This is a historic change that bears on the overall situation. It places new demands on the work of the Party and the State and on the protection of human rights in China. The report to the 19th National  Congress of the CPC points out that in order to resolve the principal contradiction  faced by society, we must, while continuing to promote development, focus on  addressing the problem of unbalanced and inadequate development. We must work  hard to improve the quality and efficiency of development, better meet the people’s ever-growing economic, political, cultural, social and ecological needs, and better  promote all-round human development and social progress. The problems raised  by and derived from the principal social contradiction in the new era, and the tasks  raised to solve the principal social contradiction in the new era, are closely related  to the protection of human rights in China. In the new era of realizing the Chinese  Dream, we need to address the problems of unbalanced and inadequate development,  including the unbalanced and inadequate protection of human rights in all regions  and fields in China. To meet the growing economic, political, cultural, social and  ecological needs of the people includes not only meeting the people’s higher demands for material and cultural life, but also meeting their growing demands for democracy,  the rule of law, fairness, justice, security and a healthy environment, in other words,  comprehensively strengthening the protection of human rights. To promote all-round human development and social progress requires the comprehensive strengthening of human rights protection, and the realization of the rights to life and development, economic, social and cultural rights, civil and political rights of the Chinese people  of all ethnic groups, as well as the human rights that specific groups should enjoy  according to the law. In the historical process of completing the building of a  moderately prosperous society in all respects, it is a major task for China to win the three critical battles of targeted poverty alleviation, pollution prevention and control, and risk prevention and diversification, and to make breakthrough in the weak links in  human rights protection at the present stage.
 
We should also, with a view to resolving the main social contradiction in the new era, conduct a comprehensive survey on the basic national conditions and human rights situation in contemporary China, and on this basis formulate long-term plans and phased goals for the realization of human rights protection. The formulation of long-term plans and phased goals for the realization of human rights protection is not only a solemn commitment made by the government in the field of human rights, but also a systematic deployment based on an important exploration of the characteristics and laws of the development of human rights in China. It reflects a series of new requirements for the realization of the Chinese Dream at the working level for the human rights cause. Specific goals and measures are put forward through the plans to clearly guarantee citizens’ economic, social and cultural rights as well as their civil and political rights, especially the rights of ethnic minorities, women, children, the elderly and the disabled. The work responsibilities of Party and government organs at all levels are clearly defined, and they are earnestly implemented.
 
The development of human rights in China shows that the concept of “respecting and protecting human rights” is put forward and realized in the course of reform and opening up. We should not ignore the phenomena of human rights violations in real life and their underlying causes. Today, there are still various problems and deficiencies in human rights in real life, which can only be resolved through reform. We must bear in mind the goal of achieving the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation and meeting the people’s ever-growing needs for a better life, incorporate human rights protection into the blueprint and road map for comprehensively deepening reform, and improve and develop the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics through comprehensively deepening reform and modernizing China’s governance system and capacity. Only in this way, can we effectively remove obstacles and barriers to the all-round development of human rights in China, and better achieve, protect and develop human rights for the Chinese people. As China embarks on even greater reform and opening up, it also holds out a bright prospect for the great development of human rights protection.
 
C. To adhere to the five-sphere integrated plan and the four-pronged comprehensive strategy, and further open up new prospects for human rights protection
 
The overarching task of building socialism with Chinese characteristics for the  new era is to realize socialist modernization and the great rejuvenation of the Chinese  nation, and, on the basis of finishing the building of a moderately prosperous society  in all respects, to build China into a great modern socialist country that is prosperous,  strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious, and beautiful by the middle  of this century. To this end, the 19th National Congress of the CPC defined the plan for accomplishing this task, namely, the five-sphere integrated plan for promoting economic, political, cultural, social, and ecological progress, as well as the four- pronged strategic plan for comprehensively building a modern socialist country, comprehensively deepening reform, comprehensively advancing the rule of law, and comprehensively enforcing strict Party discipline. Such tasks and arrangements set new and higher requirements for us to comprehensively advance the protection of human rights in China.
 
We should bear in mind the new situation of social development at the present  stage and the people’s new expectations for a better life, and focus the protection of  human rights on economic, social and cultural rights that affect people’s livelihoods.  We should continue to give top priority to the protection of people’s rights to life  and development, strive to protect and improve people’s well-being, strive to solve  the most immediate and practical problems concerning the rights and interests of  the people, promote greater justice and harmony in society, and strive to ensure that  every member of society lives with greater dignity and happiness. In accordance with  the requirements set out at the 19th National Congress of the CPC, we have made continuous progress in ensuring that children are to be raised, students are to be taught, workers are to be paid, sick people are to be treated, old people are to be cared for, housing is to be provided, and the weak are to be supported. We have worked hard to eradicate poverty, ensure that all people have a greater sense of gain from joint development and shared development, and promote all-round human development and common prosperity.4 At the same time, we should also pay attention to the protection  of the rights of ethnic minorities, women, children, the elderly and the disabled.
 
More attention should be paid to the protection of people’s environmental rights.  Ecology is the natural environment on which a nation depends for survival and  development, directly and profoundly affecting every aspect of a nation’s economy,  politics, culture and society. The report to the 19th National Congress of the CPC points out that building an ecological civilization is a thousand-year plan for the sustainable development of the Chinese nation. We must uphold and practice the concept that “clean waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets.” We must adhere to the basic State policy of conserving resources and protecting the environment, and treat the ecological environment like it is our lives. We must coordinate the systematic management of mountains, rivers, forests, farmland, lakes, and grasslands, and implement the strictest system for ecological and environmental protection. We must develop a green development model and way of life, firmly follow the path of civilized development featuring increased production, better living standards and a sound ecological environment, build a beautiful China, create a good working and living environment for our people, and make positive contributions to global ecological security. Since environmental rights are not only the rights of people today, but also the rights of future generations, strengthening the protection of environmental rights is of far-reaching significance for the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.
 
We should pay attention to the comprehensiveness and coordination of the realization of various rights of the people. Since economic, social and cultural rights and civil and political rights are an interdependent and indivisible organic whole, we must promote human rights in a coordinated way by combining the cause with economic, political, cultural, social and ecological progress. While promoting economic, social and cultural rights, we should actively yet prudently carry out political restructuring, more effectively protect civil and political rights, and protect the people’s right to be informed about, to participate in, to express views on, and to oversee State affairs, so as to meet the new requirements for expanding people’s democracy and promoting economic and social development.
 
D. To remain committed to the goal of building a community with a shared future for human beings, and work with other countries to advance the cause of human rights protection
 
The report to the 19th CPC National Congress points out that “the CPC is a political party dedicated to the well-being of the Chinese people and the cause of human progress. The Communist Party of China has always taken it as its mission to make new and greater contributions to mankind.”5 In the past, the CPC’s contribution to mankind was mainly its handling of China’s affairs well, through domestic development, poverty reduction and so on. Now China will further contribute to the world by participating in international affairs and global governance. In response to the question “what is wrong with the world and what should we do?”. President Xi Jinping has put forward the “Chinese solution” of working together to “build a community with a shared future for human beings and achieve win-win and shared progress.” At present, the cause of human rights in China is more closely linked to the cause of human rights in the world, and the progress China has made in the cause of human rights has drawn special attention from the international community. This is historic progress in the cause of human rights in China in the new era. We should actively respond to the call of the times, do a good job in China’s human rights protection with a broader global perspective, and make the voice of “a community with a shared future for human beings” more widely heard around the world.
 
V. Promoting the realization of the Chinese Dream through the Development of Human Rights Protection in China in the New Era  
 
Facts have proved that in the new era of realizing the Chinese Dream, many new requirements with the characteristics of the times are put forward for the development of China’s human rights cause. At the same time, China’s human rights cause, including the development of human rights theory research, will also promote the realization of the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.
 
A. Following the guidance of Xi Jinping thought on socialism with Chinese characteristics for a new era and promoting the realization of the Chinese Dream on the path of human rights development with Chinese characteristics
 
The great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation and the realization of the Chinese Dream also include respect for and protection of human rights. Human rights are the basic premise for the realization of a better life for human beings and the normative requirement that human life, freedom and welfare be respected and guaranteed. The Chinese nation boasts a long history and has created a splendid civilization. It was once a model for the development of human civilization and a leader among the nations of the world. Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, especially over the past 40 years of reform and opening up, the people have become more aware of their rights than ever before, given full play to their historical initiative, and made remarkable achievements in human rights. At the same time, China has returned to the ranks of the world’s major countries and won the respect of the world.
 
The reason why the Chinese nation was bullied, enslaved and plundered by the world powers in modern times is that the Chinese nation “lagged behind.” At the time of the Industrial Revolution, China missed the historical opportunity of modernizing Chinese society due to the arrogance of the rulers of the Qing Dynasty, which finally led to a hundred years of national sufferings after the Opium War. Therefore, the realization of national rejuvenation and modernization has become two sides of the same thing. In order to realize China’s modernization, there is the issue of learning from the West. History has repeatedly taught us that we should have the courage to learn from and draw on the useful achievements of human civilization, including capitalism. At the same time, we should not blindly copy the experience and practices of other countries regardless of China’s basic national conditions. This is especially true when it comes to human rights. We should not only understand that respecting and protecting human rights is a universal principle of human civilization, but also proceed from the current characteristics of China’s social development and follow our own path of human rights development in combination with respecting China’s fine historical and cultural traditions. Only in this way can we ensure that the cause of human rights protection in China and the cause of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation will keep the same pace and develop in parallel. With socialism with Chinese characteristics entering a new era, the cause of human rights in China has entered a new era as well. President Xi Jinping attaches great importance to the development of China’s human rights cause in the new era, and has put forward a series of profound thoughts that reflect the development of China’s human rights cause. In particular, he stresses that China has “blazed a path of human rights development with Chinese characteristics.” To advance the cause of human rights in China in the new era, it is essential to unswervingly follow the path of human rights development with Chinese characteristics. Only in this way can we truly and effectively promote the development of the cause of human rights in China and the realization of the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.
 
B. Conducting in-depth studies on the current problems of human rights protection in China, and promoting the realization of the Chinese Dream while upholding integrity and innovation and responding to various challenges
 
Respecting and protecting human rights is the trend of modern world civilization progress. It is also the established ruling philosophy and goal of the CPC. Since reform and opening up, the Communist Party of China, taking into account the trend of world civilization progress, has clearly established “respecting and protecting human rights” as the fundamental concept of governing the country, and has made new progress on the road of human rights development with Chinese characteristics. In particular, “respecting and protecting human rights” has been included in the reports to the CPC National Congress, the Chinese Constitution, the Constitution of the CPC, and the strategic plan for national development. It has become an important principle in the governance of the CPC and the Chinese government.
 
At the same time, we must be soberly aware that there is still a lot to be done to  implement the requirements for the protection of human rights, because there is no  “best” way to protect human rights; there is only “better”. The 19th National Congress of the CPC points out that to complete the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects, we must resolutely fight the tough battles of preventing and defusing major risks, take targeted measures to eliminate poverty, and prevent and control pollution. These three tough battles are all practical problems that China needs to solve in the protection of human rights. These issues bear on the vital interests of the people, the protection of their basic human rights, the full play of their enthusiasm, creativity and initiative in building a socialist, modernized country, and the realization of the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. Therefore, to respect and protect human rights from the height of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, we should uphold the spirit of integrity and innovation, deeply study and solve the practical problems of human rights protection in China, and promote the realization of the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.
 
C. Widely popularizing basic knowledge of human rights and human rights protection, and promoting the realization of the Chinese Dream by improving the human rights knowledge of the general public, especially of the Party and government leaders
 
It is up to people to realize the Chinese Dream. The quality of people, especially education level in terms of human rights, is crucial to the realization of the Chinese Dream. Human rights are the rights that human beings should enjoy according to their natural and social attributes. Together, they represent human dignity and embody fairness, justice, humanity, kindness and other beautiful human spirits and values. In 1991, when China published its first white paper Human rights in China, it was  clearly pointed out that “to enjoy full human rights has long been an ideal pursued by  mankind. Over the centuries since the great term ‘human rights’ was first invented,  people of all countries have made unremitting efforts for human rights and scored  great achievements.” For a long time, under the reactionary rule of imperialism,  feudalism and bureaucrat-capitalism, the Chinese people did not know what human  rights were. It was not until the founding of the People’s Republic of China that  human rights were protected according to law for the first time. However, this is not  to say that “human rights” and “human rights protection” have become household  knowledge and principles that people follow in every word and action in China.  Therefore, in our efforts to realize the Chinese Dream today, it has become an urgent  task to popularize the basic knowledge of human rights and human rights protection  in the whole society, and to improve the human rights knowledge of the people,  especially the Party and government leaders.
 
We need to use popular forms to let the people understand that human rights are not abstract, but concrete and closely related to people’s daily lives. According to the International Covenant on Civil and Political rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural rights adopted by the United Nations in 1966, human rights can be divided into two broad categories. One is economic, social and cultural rights, mainly including property rights, the right to rest, the right to equal pay for equal work for men and women, the right to work, the right to social security, the right to an adequate standard of living, the right to special protection for mothers, children and adolescents, the right to education, the right to culture, etc. The other is civil and political rights, mainly including the right to life, personal freedom and personality right, the right to freedom from torture and inhuman treatment, the right to presumption of innocence, the right not to be forced to incriminate oneself, the right to freedom of movement, the right to freedom of private life, the right to freedom of religious belief, the right to freedom of expression, the right to peaceful assembly, association, demonstration and participation in political power, etc. These rights are basically stipulated in the Constitution and laws of China. However, it can be said that the general public’s understanding of these rights is not deep enough at present. Therefore, knowledge of these rights should be widely popularized among the general public in a form that is easy to understand. To improve the human rights education of the Chinese people is the cornerstone for advancing the cause of human rights in China and for realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation while protecting human rights.
 
It needs to be pointed out that in order to improve the human rights education of the Chinese people, we must first improve that of the Party and government officials. On the issue of human rights and human rights protection, some Party members and cadres still lack a correct understanding. Some even put human rights as “a scourge”, and the protection of human rights as a “sensitive” problem, and keep a distance with the principle of “respecting and protecting human rights”, which has been written into the CPC Constitution and the Constitution of China. Some Party members and cadres not only fail to properly deal with the human rights concerns of the people, but even infringe upon the human rights of the people. And the “four bad styles” such as bureaucratism and formalism still exist. Therefore, to popularize the knowledge of human rights and strengthen the education of human rights protection, we should start from the leading cadres of the Party and government, further solve the problems of “human rights desensitization” and establish the consciousness of human rights protection. Education on human rights knowledge and human rights protection should be carried out in cadres’ education institutions nationwide, starting with the Party School of the CPC Central Committee (National School of Administration) and Party schools at all levels (School of Administration), so that leading Party and government officials can truly understand that they must abide by the constitutional principle of “respecting and protecting human rights” in all their work and strive to safeguard human rights in their governance. Thus, we can promote the realization of the Chinese Dream in the creation of a new pattern of human rights protection in China.
 
D. Strengthen international exchanges and promoting the realization of the Chinese Dream in the process of enhancing China’s international human rights voice and improving China’s soft power
 
Human rights are the historical product of human civilization. In today’s world, the cohesiveness, influence and charisma of a society are essentially embodied in their respect for and protection of the freedom and well-being of people. To realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation in such an international environment and times, it is all the more important to respect and protect human rights. Only in this way can we win the respect and recognition from the heart of other nations and make the Chinese nation stand tall among all nations with a brand new look. However, due to the differences in history, culture, social system and ideology of countries in the world, especially under the influence of “Western-centrism” in modern times, it is not easy for China’s contribution to the protection of human rights to be widely respected and recognized by the world, especially by Western countries. Since reform and opening up, especially since socialism with Chinese characteristics entered the new era, China has strengthened opening-up on all fronts and made remarkable progress and achievements. But as President Xi Jinping pointed out, the problem of being accused because of being “lack of a voice” has not been fundamentally solved, especially on the issue of human rights.
 
In view of this situation, when striving for the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, we should not only strengthen human rights construction and advance the cause of human rights in China, but also make great efforts to carry out international exchanges on human rights with the focus on strengthening the country’s soft power, including official and non-governmental exchanges between countries, especially think tank exchanges, so as to introduce to the international community the real China and the achievements China has made in human rights protection. At the same time, it is necessary to explore the construction of a human rights discourse system with Chinese characteristics that can be understood and accepted by the international community in international exchanges, fundamentally change the situation that China is often accused because of “lacking a voice” in human rights issues, continuously enhance China’s soft power, and help realize the Chinese Dream of great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.
 
VI. Conclusion: the Chinese Dream and the Prospects for Human Rights Protection in China
 
Against the backdrop of the spread of Covid-19, we have witnessed the great differences in social systems in coping with the challenges posed by the crisis. The responses to the pandemic and the countermeasures taken by some Western countries obviously violate the values of freedom, equality and human rights that they have always advocated. In stark contrast, under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, the Chinese people have made steady progress and shown stronger momentum in their historic journey to realize the Chinese Dream and protect human rights in China. The “governance of China” and the “chaos of the West” have formed a sharp contrast. Therefore, we must maintain our strategic focus, have confidence in our path, theory, system and culture, constantly overcome difficulties and obstacles on the road of development, and continue to resolutely forge ahead on the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics. We must be fully aware that the Chinese people’s full enjoyment of human rights and the realization of their comprehensive and free development are the essential requirements and ultimate goals of the Chinese Dream. The process of realizing the Chinese Dream is a process of promoting the full protection and realization of human rights and the comprehensive and free development of people. The just completed task of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects and the following two-step strategic plan are both aimed at enabling the Chinese people to live with greater dignity and higher quality of life. Therefore, we are engaged in all aspects of development to meet the multi-faceted needs of the Chinese people, to realize the comprehensive and free development of people, and finally build China into a country where everyone can be the best of them and contribute to their motherland.
 
(Translated by CHEN Feng) 

 
* This paper is compiled and modified based on the research report “Chinese Dream and Human Rights  Protection in China”, a sub-project of the major human rights subject of Marxism Project “Theoretical Research on Human Rights with Chinese Characteristics”. Group Leader: LI Junru ( 李君如 ), Vice President of the China Society for Human Rights Studies and former Vice President of the Party School of the CPC Central Committee. Authors: ZHANG Xiaoling ( 张晓玲 ), Professor, Department of Political Science and Law, Party School of the CPC Central Committee (National School of Administration); HE Xuefeng ( 何雪 峰 ), Doctoral candidate in Marxist legal theory at the Party School of the CPC Central Committee (National School of Administration); ZHAO Mingxia ( 赵明霞 ), Associate Professor at the School of Marxism, Tianjin University of Finance and Economics. 
 
1. Xi Jinping, “Chinese President Xi Jinping delivers a New Year Message for 2021”, People's Daily, January 1, 2021. 
 
2. “The realization of the Chinese Dream Will Guarantee the Human Rights of the Chinese People at a Higher  Level”, website of Shandong government affairs, accessed February 26, 2021. http: //news,sdchina.com/  show/3508239.html. 
 
3. Xi Jinping, “Chinese President Xi Jinping delivers a New Year Message for 2021”, People’s Daily, January 1,
2021. 
 
4. Xi Jinping, Securing a Decisive Victory in Building a Moderately Prosperous Society in All respects and  Achieving the great Victory of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a new Era, Compilation of  Documents of the 19th national Congress of the Communist Party of China (Beijing: Party Building Books  Publishing House, 2017), 16.
 
5. Xi Jinping, Securing a Decisive Victory in Building a Moderately Prosperous Society in All respects and  Achieving the great Victory of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a new Era, Compilation of  Documents of the 19th national Congress of the Communist Party of China, (Beijing: Party Building Books  Publishing House, 2017), 39. 
 
Chinese Dictionary:

@cn_humanrights

For the latest news and analysis from our

reporters and editors:Staff Twitter List>>

E-mail:chinahrs@public.bta.net.cn