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ABADDI Ahmed: Switching from Prevention to Immunization in Countering Terrorism, within the Human Rights Frame of Action
September 12,2019   By:
Switching from Prevention to Immunization in Countering Terrorism, within the Human Rights Frame of Action
Abstract: Many countries are restricting their approaches to tackle violent extremism to hard power and prevention strategies. Whereas the problematic lays as well deeper in the emotional and conceptual arenas. Those arenas require, for them to be adequately addressed, a mastery of the text and the context. This means having a grasp of tools that belligerent entities such as “Daesh” employ to bring in recruits and adherents, which are mainly manifested in 4 questions of 
-Why you should join me- (we will insure a utopia)
-Why you should hate them (identifying a broadly defined evil to be defeated)
-Why people who tell you otherwise are wrong (discrediting and delegitimizing of all rhetorics outside of their own)
-Why we are right- (Employing textual -although misconstrued- to back rhetoric)
What this, in turn necessitates, is a good training of active actors to enable them to see the societies not as blocs but as they are in their granular embodiment, with all the specificities of each of its components, and then develop appropriate strategies to accompany each section of the society through an immunization process which lays on 5 major pillars: 
1. Critical Thinking. 
Is the imparting of the ability to weigh the belief systems one is exposed to, in an effective contextualised manner that allows for the recognition of radical/extremist strains. 
2. Capacity to engage with the extremist narrative and neutralise it.
Is the capacity to break down the radical rhetoric to its bare components, identify what is wrong with it and construct a counter-narrative that makes use of these core units. 
3. Capacity to act within the frame of human rights, and the rule of law. 
Is the recognition of what one is entitled to as rights, and more importantly an awareness of where one’s individual responsibility lies in the insuring of these rights.
4. Utilization of the appropriate channels and technologies. 
The identification of different methods to communicate to different sections of society, and the awareness of technological advancements as it enables ways to communicate to the more technologically oriented youths and teenagers (Gen Z and Alpha)
5. Elaboration of efficient modes of evaluation and thus evolution of immunization strategies. 
The establishment of a constantly developing system of evaluation that insures the keep up with the changing ways of our time, and enables the effective remodelling whenever the need arises. 
This continued problematic of the spread of violent ideologies is birthing a new set of unforeseen humanitarian challenges. This is most notably manifested in the complex, multidimensional repercussions of the influx of returnees coming back from battle grounds in Syria and Iraq. The kaleidoscopic, dynamically-changing nature of this problematic makes it so that, as with pathogens, focusing only on Countering and Preventing (CVE/PVE) as a strategy is temporary, and soon to be obsolete. This is a further testament to the growing need for a paradigm shift, from that of only countering and prevention, to that of immunization. 
This paper will thus be centred on three central axes:
1. WHAT? (What do we mean by immunization?)
2. WHY? (Why is this immunization needed?)
3. HOW? (How is this immunization to be actualized in the framework of human rights?)
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