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ZHANG Xian: Headscarf Issue and De-radicalization: European Experiences
September 12,2019   By:
Headscarf Issue and De-radicalization: European Experiences
Abstract: In recent years, France and other European countries have been frequently subjected to terrorist attacks. The relationship between terrorist attacks and the expansion of religious extremism forces has attracted wide attention. As the central issue of politico-religious conflict and the main manifestation of religious extremism clothing, the controversy over the headscarf of Muslim women, especially whether they can wear face-covering veils in public places, has become increasingly hot-debated in Europe. After the terrorist attack in Paris in 2015, many European countries including the Nordic countries known for their tolerance and freedom, speeded up domestic legislative process of ban on face-covering veils, and strictly prohibited wearing face-covering veils in public places has become a trend in Europe. This paper firstly introduces the religious source of wearing headscarves for Muslim women which is written in Koran, distinguishes different types of headscarves including Burka, Niqab, Chador, Hijab, Al-Amira, Shayla and Khimar, emphatically analyzes the difference between ordinary headscarves and conservative even extreme face-covering veils. Then, the paper outlines the outset, escalation and intensification of the headscarf controversy, elaborates legal measures of European countries taken to deal with religious extremism clothing, especially the ban on face-covering veils. In addition, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) and other pan-European judicial bodies have also expressed their attitude towards the headscarf issue through relevant judicial decisions. Finally, the paper also discusses which part of the European experiences of religious de-radicalization could be learned by Chinese side especially by the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous region where the paralled work has been done. Refering to the European experiences, the author concludes that religious De-radicalization would be handled by legal means for its authoritativeness and effectiveness, the relevant legislation and law-enforcement measures in Xinjiang conform to the international trend and the mainstream practices of various countries, such European experiences should be creatively transformed to Sinicization and all relevant local legislations should be constantly amended and improved accordingly.
Key Words: Headscarf Issue; Face-covering Veils; De-radicalization
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