Home > Building a Community of Shared Future for Mankind: a New App

The Promotion and Protection of Human Rights in the Discourse of Building a Community of Shared Future for Mankind
The Promotion and Protection of Human Rights in the Discourse of Building a Community of Shared Future for Mankind

ZHOU Li, Lecturer and Head of Center for Human Rights Education and Research, Southwest University of Political Science and Law
When we confronting the international situation, such as the global political situation of one superpower and several powerful countries, the lacking in strength of global financial development, the deepening of digital divide, and the simultaneously rising of confrontation and exchange between the values and the development paths, and the security threats spread from traditional field to non-traditional field, which shows transnational, easily transitional, uncertain of subjects and unexpected. There are several points worth to note:
A. In general, the essence of these phenomenon is that there is fracture or imbalance in countries’ mutual correlations based on diversity.
B. The primary cause of these problems is that nations are weak in capacities for keeping internal independence and dealing with external newly appearing risks.
C. There is or will be inevitably a global solidarity relationship among nations.
For this, It is necessary to emphasize two fundamental standpoints:
Diversity is an access to maintain stability. This principle not only applys for the nature, but also for the human society. In the A/HRC/34/39 document of this conference, there is a statement that human rights depend on species diversity. The stability with diversity could form a dynamic stability, and the stability without diversity or only with simplicity is a kind of static stability, this is rigid stability which is very easy to collapse.
We need to admit and respect diversity, and to strengthen connectivity and integrity in it. Diversity itself is a kind of natural equilibrium state, and it is neutral, whatever good or bad. But we often find that the strong ones or the hegemonic ones always try to impose their own values and evaluation criteria to the subjects outside of them, to deliberately create evaluation of weak or to pass on risks, and then to erase diversity by means of pushing out or knocking out.
There is a Chinese proverb saying of “Harmony but not the sameness”, “One cherishes one’s own merits, but also cherishes others’ merits. It is mutual appreciation that may lead to universal harmony.”These proverbs can be seen as the concentrated expression of the two standpoints above. Now China proposes the community of shared future for mankind trying to uphold the recognition of global solidarity and to strengthen the connection in nations on the basis of diversity, in order to seek common interests and values by means of internal governance capacities and external anti-pressure capacities.
We have seen that the chaotic situation in the Middle East gave rise to the refugee tide, and then endangered the human rights protection. And we have seen the financial crisis happened in the East Asia and the Latin America successively that originated from one country and spread to the whole district, and finally affected the fundamental human rights in the areas of life, employment and social security, etc..
These all profoundly reflect that the human society is a connecting community on the basis of diversity. In this understanding, human rights is firstly a concept of comprehensiveness, gets involved in many areas, such as politics, economics, culture, environment and development. At the same time, human rights is a concept of mapping, demonstrates the interests, claims, entitlements, authority and capacity, free will, etc., in the areas mentioned above, forming a mutual construction between rights and facts. Furthermore, human rights is a concept of integrity, integrates values of human rights, kinds of subjects, and integrate kinds of different levels of fundamental rights. This human rights are of rights, ethics, universality and inclusiveness.
There are solidarity among the human rights protection subjects. Every country should engage in safeguarding the peace and security, the stability and development. Each country should respect the sovereignty of others. This means, a. to maintain the diversity of human community. b. to respect the social institutions and development paths of other countries’.c. to respect the rule of law system of other countries’. 
Still, the universality of human rights values doesn’t mean the universality of human rights protection criteria. Every nation should abide by the principles combine the universality of human rights with characteristics of nations. We should strengthen external cooperation mechanisms, and enhance the hierarchy and target of internal human rights law.
The initiative of the community of shared future for mankind is the general idea of all the Chinese ideas. To inspect experiences of China in recent years could demonstrate how does this idea lead human rights promotion and protection. 
We can see that China actively participates in UPR and other UN’s mechanisms and regional mechanisms all the time, and is devoted to pushing forward the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, and to pushing forward the cooperation among developing countries by means of G20, BRICS, South-South Cooperation and the Belt and Road Initiative. China persists in carrying on friendly negotiation from economy, development, and right of national self-determination all along. And China tries to institutionalize the principles and initiatives through setting mechanisms and forums, seeks common interests and common values. All of these are manifestations of initiative of the community of shared future for mankind. 
We can see that about 700 million population get rid of poverty, the poor population in rural area reduced to 55.75 million in 2015. When we are protecting the fundamental right to life, we are caring about civil rights to know, to participate, to express and to supervise. This is a typical affair-oriented mode of human rights protection, which advances democracy participation and livelihood standard, in order to defend the indivisible, interdependent, and interrelated integrity of human rights.
We’ve already recognized that human beings and human community are of vulnerability, diversity, scarcity, which originates the problems of global peace and security. We should know that the nature of human beings is not an abstract thing of individuality, in its reality, it is the whole social relations. The free development of each individuality is the requirement of the free development of all human beings.We should be devoted to seeking the external circumstance of justice, inclusiveness, and composed peace.
We also can see that China actively responds to the initiative of VDAP(Vienna Declaration and Action Program), and has released three National Human Rights Action Plans of China in succession since 2009, the assessment of the first two are good. The Action Plans focuse on civil and political rights, economic, social and cultural rights, rights of special groups, human rights education and research, cooperation and communication, implementation and assessment. These three action plans also demonstrate the mode of human rights protection combining democracy and livelihood, and show a target-governance mode of human rights protection. Besides, with the specialized program and policy in the fields, the hierarchy of human rights system get improved, and be more manipulative and applicable, shows a practical attitude.
The community of shared future for mankind is also the community of rights, duty and responsibility. The narrowly focused vision of national interests in the past highlighted the individuality of nations, but neglected the relativity, solidarity and integrity, this resulted in many undesirable consequences. The Promotion and Protection of Human Rights in the Discourse of Building a Community of Shared Future for Mankind, should not only stress rights, but also stress duty and responsibility, as well as emphasize the dignity of sovereignty and dignity of human values. Taking into account the legitimate concerns of other countries in the pursuit of own national interests, to promote the common development of all countries in the pursuit of national development. This not means sharing the burden, but sharing the responsibility, the collective responsibilities in shared values.
If justice means everybody does his own job and his own duty, that is to say, we should on the premise of respecting the sovereignty and development features of each country, to intensify the basic responsibility of countries in international community, to unceasingly carry forward development, and fully estimate the development level, to strengthen communication and understanding, to constantly make revisions and corrections, to maintain the common interests and common values.