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The Concept of Multiple Human Rights from the Perspective of Community of Common Destiny
The Concept of Multiple Human Rights from the Perspective of Community of Common Destiny
 

 
ZHU Ying, Deputy Director of Center for Human Rights Education and Research, Southwest University of Political Science and Law
 
"China will always be a contributor to global development, adhere to the common development path and continue to pursue a mutually beneficial and win-win strategy to share their experiences and opportunities with the rest of the world and welcome countries," he said in a speech at the United Nations in September 2015. Take the development of China 'ride', together to achieve common development. "We must strive for equitable development, so that the development opportunities are more equal, all countries should become the global development of the participants, contributors, beneficiaries.
 
There can not be a national development, other countries do not develop, part of the national development, the other part of the country does not develop. There are differences in the capacity and level of each country, under the same goal, should bear the common but differentiated responsibilities. To improve the global economic governance, improve the representation and voice of developing countries, give countries equal participation in the right to formulate rules. "China will always be the builder of peace in the world and firmly follow the path of peaceful development. No matter how the international situation changes, no matter how China develops, China will never dominate, never expand, and never seek the sphere of influence." 
 
Four key words: Equality (development), Cooperation (win-win), Security (co-governance), Tolerance (mutual Kam), which is "fate community" four fulcrum.
 
"Building a human fate community" China has big moves. "Three unwavering" embodies China's responsibility and play - adhere to the peaceful development, determination will not be shaken; adhere to common development, the idea will not waver; adhere to the Asia-Pacific cooperation and development, policy will not waver.
 
To create a human fate community "five one" of the total layout and the total path, including the establishment of equal treatment, mutual understanding and mutual understanding of the partnership, to create a fair justice, build a shared security pattern, seeking open innovation, inclusive development prospects , Promote and different, eclectic exchange of civilization, build respect for nature, green development of the ecological system.
The multiple values of human rights. (equality)
 
The term "pluralism" has multiple meanings in moral and political theory: it may be an empirical claim that different people hold different beliefs and values, or in a normative perspective, this pluralism Is the expression of "desirable".
 
How to deal with the chaos of the "gods" in modern society, in which the conflict of these values, in addition to the classical sense of "good" and "evil" conflict facts, in modern society, different "good" between Out of tune, especially those that are conceptualized.
 
First of all to admit that it found a "fact": the modern society created by the new "gods", not only the existence of obvious non-covenant, and conflict with each other. If the "tide" concept, a particular "good" or "value" to lead the goal of our lives in order to obtain the theoretical unity of harmony, regardless of their desire for the good or nominal lofty, will be modern People 's "freedom" poses a threat. This inner tension indicates another "fact": on the one hand, recognizing the legitimacy of the pluralistic value and resolutely opposing the monistic claim of "integrating" the pluralistic value;
 
At the same time, he is also keenly aware of another dilemma, that is, the difference between the different ultimate values of the choice and have to pay the sacrifice. Modern people must make a "rational choice", "value" of the plural is the modern human face of the basic facts, can not avoid the choice is the basic situation of mankind. And the purpose is to conflict with each other, people can not have all things, so choose to become a need for some "value" at the expense of others, become the basic characteristics of human survival dilemma. This is also a true portrayal of modern politics "imperfect".
 
The concept of universal human rights established by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, both in terms of its definition of human rights and specific connotations, is based on Western values. The fundamental value of the West is based on liberalism. Liberalism emphasizes respect for the dignity of the individual and reflects the emphasis on individual rights as the center. However, the basis of non-Western traditional values is holistic, obligatory, and even hierarchical. It can be seen that the liberal values are nothing but a multivariate value of the world and can not be used as a standard of universal human rights. Thus, the prevailing universal human rights is nothing more than a reflection of liberal values and a specialism under the cover of universalism.
 
The concept of multiple human rights here poses a sharp question: if there is a possibility in the existence of universal human rights in a single moral world, then the pluralistic moral world realizes this possibility; it is necessary for us to believe that universal human rights The existence of such as to believe that "Unicorn" (McIntyre) as absurd.
We should today to explore the Chinese nation is both a diversity, but also inclusive of the unified structure. This inclusive "unity" means a redefining the basic principle of "equality": it is not the exclusive nature of homogeneity in the Western sense, "the beauty  in different unit but sharing the beauty together” in the sense of Equality, to maintain differences, but also to maintain unity.
 
The multiple interests of human rights attributes (cooperation)
 
Modernization originated in a hundred years ago, the history of Western Europe occurred in a more than 200 years of Renaissance. The Renaissance liberated the "people" from the shackles of "God", liberated the productive forces from the shackles of the feudal society, led Western Europe out of the medieval ignorance and darkness, and welcomed the dawn of modern civilization. The Renaissance has promoted the establishment of a modern world system based on the world market. But this system is undoubtedly the continuation of the traditional imperial colonial system of political structure, continued to today, is a complex and ever-changing international order, the world's great development gap.
 
But at the level of the facts, there is a hierarchical structure of the center of the imperialism and the edge, and this hierarchical structure is further strengthened by the international division of labor and production chains. In addition to the country's long history of the main body of power, there have been large enterprises, multinational institutions such as the IMF, non-governmental organizations, international media and other new power main body. The country's "monarchy" is being the impact of these global "new aristocratic princes". In the era of globalization, violence-based power did not disappear, but new powers - new powers characterized by capital withdrawal - continued to emerge.
 
Although the Renaissance greatly liberated people, but people have paid a great price: the Renaissance people from the shackles of God freed, people are deified, alienated. The intersection of human civilization has come to the critical point of qualitative change, the human crisis calls for the inheritance and development of humanism in the negation of negation, calling for a new civilization revival. It wants to continue the liberation of man, but also to over-expansion of people into a harmonious person. "Human beings have only one earth, countries live in a world"
 
Third, the multiple power of human rights attributes (security)
 
There is a dualistic structure in the international order: on the ideal level, the universal international nation-state forms an international order through international treaties, and the continental modern nation-state structure becomes the standard of distinction between civilization and brutality in the subject of international order.
The concept of multiple human rights argues that, in accordance with this fundamental principle, human rights are a matter of national sovereignty, and that a human rights perspective and a human rights system must be determined by the people of the country in accordance with their own will and effort. It is this point that gives the peoples a qualification to create a human rights concept that fits their own cultural traditions and specific historical conditions and contributes to the pattern of human rights diversification worldwide. In addition, the principle of national sovereignty supra- s principle also stipulates that the content and scope of human rights enjoyed by individuals in a country are regulated and guaranteed by means of the law by means of law. "Today's individual rights exist in the protection of the state , So there is no national sovereignty, there is no individual rights 'sovereignty' is actually higher than human rights.
 
Fourth, the multicultural nature of human rights (inclusive)
 
Generally speaking, the view of cultural relativism is mainly embodied in the following two aspects: First, the social and cultural aspects of each nation are equal; Second, the fact of cultural diversity requires us to respect for different cultural phenomena should be respected and Tolerant attitude, especially to the culture of ethnic minorities and vulnerable groups, rather than simply distinguish between merits and demerits and criticisms.
 
In fact, after the collapse of the colonial system around the world, the countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America began to conceive their own human rights concepts, these ideas with different from the Western concept of human rights and distinctive cultural characteristics.
 
1) From the perspective of the human rights subject, people always exist in a specific "cultural network", culture engages us into a single species - and there is no doubt that we continue to shape us - So that we become different individuals. "Therefore, if there is human rights, then it is the right of specific people, such as the rights of the Javanese, the rights of the Chinese people, the rights of the Americans and so on.
 
2) From the perspective of the basic connotation of human rights, the perception of human dignity and value is different in different cultural contexts. "People always understand human rights, human dignity, and human beings from their own cultural traditions Social relations, the relationship between rights and obligations, etc. "
 
3) From the perspective of human rights protection, due to the role of specific culture, the system of human rights protection does not have an absolutely unified system model; Moreover, the development and judgment of human rights protection standards can not be based on the value of a single culture Moral orientation is the only reference.
 
The concept of multiple human rights expresses the view that the interpretation of human rights can not be divorced from the relevant cultural context. This view comes from respect for the inherent inevitability of the different cultures of the world today, but also from the understanding and support of the choice of human rights practice in the world.